thumbspage — Turn Folders into HTML Image Galleries

Version:  2.3, May 9, 2022 (changes)
License:  Provided freely, but with no warranties of any kind
Author:  © M. Lutz (learning-python.com) 2016-2022
Install:  Unzip thumbspage's download, install the Pillow library
Run with:  Python 3.X, on any platform supporting this and Pillow
See also:  web pagelive demosscreenshotsexamplescode

Welcome to the thumbspage manual. This guide is meant for content creators and consumers of all kinds. It includes an overview of the program, detailed usage information, and a look at what's been upgraded in each release. Whether you consider yourself a developer or user, you'll find resources here to help you get started building and viewing image galleries with thumbspage.

Because thumbspage adds items to the images source folder and may rotate photos there, you are encouraged to read this guide first—especially its usage caution—before running thumbspage on valued picture collections. But if you're in a hurry: for a quick preview, try a live demo, packaged examples, or the code. You can also click the image above to test-drive the original use case, and take a brief tour of this program at its web page.



This section introduces the basics of thumbspage's roles and operation. Read this first if you're looking for a quick summary.

Why thumbspage?

In short, this program allows you to view or display a folder of images in a web browser, using a format which is simple by design yet noticeably better than browser defaults, and does not require a web server except when viewing images online.

thumbspage turns an images folder into an easily viewed gallery. It automatically makes image thumbnails, an HTML thumbnail-links index page, and HTML image-viewer pages for all the images in a source folder, all of which can be broadly customized by content creators. The mostly static results can be viewed offline or online in any web browser.

In a theoretical sense, thumbspage is a program that builds another program: its results are a combination of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, which are run by a browser. More tangibly, thumbspage simply creates presentation scaffolding for user-friendly views of a folder's images.

What thumbspage Does

In a bit more detail, given a folder of image files, this program generates an HTML index page in one of two flavors, with generated thumbnail links for each image in the folder. This page's links open the full-size images using either browser-native (i.e., built-in) display, or generated HTML viewer pages.

Viewer pages in turn dynamically scale the image to your display; include links for gallery navigation, automatic slideshows, and one-page fullscreen; and open image-info popups on filename clicks, and image-description popups on button taps when enabled. On mobile and PC touch screens, swipe gestures on the image trigger viewer-page actions too.

Apart from image scaling and interactive tools, the net effect is intentionally static: generated results reflect the folder's contents at build time only, but do not require a web server, and can be viewed both offline and online in any desktop or mobile browser. As such, this program can be used both for both websites and non-web use cases, including program documentation, photo sharing, and general viewing.

When run using the techniques explored ahead, the builder program skips non-image files; uses optional header and footer HTML inserts in the index page; uses text note files for any or all images in viewer pages; makes an optional bullet list for subfolders in the images folder; and creates the output index page in the images folder itself, along with a subfolder for thumbnail images and viewer pages. The resulting gallery is complete and self-contained, and ready to be viewed or published.

Using thumbspage Galleries

After running this program, you can view or publish its results in a variety of ways:

To view results
Use any web browser to open the generated index page created in your images folder (the page is named index.html by default).
To publish results
Copy the entire images folder, including its generated thumbs subfolder and index file (named _thumbspage and index.html by default, respectively).
To publish results to a remote website
Upload the entire images folder—index page, images, and thumbs subfolder—to the folder representing your gallery on your site's web-server host. Zip or otherwise bundle the folder first for convenience.

As a client example, the website that hosts thumbspage uses it for some 50 galleries today, some of which are viewable both online at the site, and offline in program download packages. For a sampling, see this site's demos. Builders can also find gallery-build pointers in thumbspage's publishing scripts, though its simple console interaction or command lines may suffice for most uses.

Latest thumbspage Features

thumbspage began as a builder of simple index pages that used generated thumbnail images for their links, but its feature set has evolved over time in response to usage experience. Among its new highlights added in recent releases:

You can read the full story on new releases ahead. Move on to the next section to start learning how to use thumbspage to view and display your photos.

Viewing Galleries

This section covers the basics of viewing the galleries which thumbspage creates. It's oriented towards gallery consumers (a.k.a. users), though creators might find its functionality overview helpful too. If you're looking for details on running the program to make galleries, though, see the builders' section.

By today's standards, thumbspage galleries are straightforward and intuitive to use. They work and may be viewed on any desktop or mobile browser, and both online and offline. No extensions must be installed in browsers to view thumbspage galleries, though JavaScript should be enabled for the best user-interface (UI) experience, and some browsers have known quirks that can impact gallery behavior (there's more on JavaScript and browsers in Viewing Tips ahead).

Once built, a thumbspage gallery consists of an index page opened initially, and one viewer page per image opened from either thumbnails on the index page, or direct page-address URLs. The next sections describe how these two page types are used.

Index Pages

Index pages are the usual entry point into a gallery. Here's one captured on desktop and mobile browsers, and its live version.

Index pages display thumbnail images, either in a fixed table which scrolls both horizontally and vertically as needed, or arranged to fit the display's size per the 2.1 update ahead. Either way, index-page thumbnails normally open the next section's larger image-viewer pages when tapped (or clicked). By default, index pages also display the image folder's basename, and a bullet-list of links that open subfolders nested in the page's folder, if any are present.

Beginning with 2.0, thumbspage index pages also usually display a floating Top button near page bottom after a scroll, much like that in this guide. Click (or tap) Top to jump to the top of the index page immediately—to read its preface or open its first image, for example. Top appears only after you scroll down far enough, so it may not show up on smaller index pages.

An index page's subfolders links may lead to supplemental info or nested galleries, and their behavior varies per usage mode. When viewing galleries online, subfolder links typically open a nested gallery's index page automatically. When viewing offline, these links open a simple directory listing, and you'll manually click nested galleries' index pages (e.g., index.html) if present. These links also open directory listings for non-gallery folders on some online servers; tap filenames to open. There's more on subfolders ahead.

While many index pages follow the preceding norm, individual galleries can also customize it with tailored header and footer content above and below the thumbnails table. They might also use thumbnails that open raw displays instead of viewer pages, may display tooltips on mouseovers, and can opt out of either floating Top buttons or subfolder bullet lists. Experiment with galleries you visit to see which options they support.

Update: as of version 2.1, thumbspage index pages may also use either a fixed or dynamic layout. By default, index pages use the original fixed layout, which always displays the same number of columns. In dynamic layout, the thumbnails table does not scroll horizontally; instead, the number of columns is chosen to match the display size, and changes when the display is resized. Dynamic layout is an option which can be enabled when a gallery is built. If you run across this alternative, you can shrink or expand your window on PCs and mobiles with popup app windows to view fewer or more columns. On mobile in general, switching device orientation has a similar effect. See the demo.

Viewer Pages

Index-page thumbnail clicks and taps by default open viewer pages (a.k.a. image-viewer pages in this doc) to display a single image. Here's one captured on desktop and mobile, along with its live version.

Viewer pages display the image's filename, the image itself, and a bottom toolbar of action buttons, and respond to swipe gestures on the image on touch screens. The image is automatically scaled to fill the window's or display's available space, and grows or shrinks in both directions with desktop-window resizes, mobile-device rotations, fullscreen toggles, and popup or split-screen app-window resizes on some mobiles. The toolbar has four to six named action items (Note and Full are optional), and scrolls horizontally to reveal buttons if needed on smaller displays. Viewer pages may display tooltips on mouseovers too; this is enabled by default when galleries are built.

Everything on a viewer page does something when tapped and images respond to swipes, as the following sections will describe.

Widget Actions

All told, there are seven or eight actions available to users on viewer pages, five of which have swipe-gesture equivalents—and two of which are invoked with display widgets instead of buttons:

Filename tap — view image-info popup
Open an info dialog describing the image. This displays the image's date of origin; date last modified; file size; and image and display dimensions (as width x height pixels). When date of origin is known, "Taken" means a camera capture, and "Digitized" implies a scan. If known, the popup also lists the origin device (e.g., camera or scanner) or software (e.g., drawing program). The info popup appears at the top of the page; scroll its text or page as needed on smaller displays, and tap its OK button—or anywhere outside the popup's window in most browsers—to close the dialog. As of 2.2, the filename-tap event is also triggered by a down-swipe on the image.
Image tap — view raw display
Open the image using the underlying browser's raw display. This display is useful for a zooming in and out (e.g., with spread/pinch, or control or command with +/-), and may yield a larger image depending on browser and display size. Use the browser's Back operation (e.g., button or swipe) to return to the gallery's viewer page. The Full toolbar button also zooms the image in most contexts, but we have to move ahead to see how. As of 2.2, the image-tap event is also triggered by an up-swipe on the image in supporting browsers when image notes are unused (see ahead).

Toolbar Actions

The remaining viewer-page actions can all be requested by tapping named toolbar buttons (or swiping equivalently), and one is optional and may be omitted when a gallery is built:

Prev — view previous image
Go to the previous image, in filename-sorted order. By design, the current image is not 'stacked' in browser history, which means it won't be revisited on a browser Back request; you'll jump immediately to where you where before the first image view. As of 2.2, Prev is also triggered by a left- or right-swipe on the image.
Next — view next image
Go to the next image, in filename-sorted order. Just like Prev, the current image is not 'stacked' in browser history on Next, so it won't be revisited on a browser Back request; you won't have to retrace through every image you've viewed. The Auto button covered ahead automatically runs Next. As of 2.2, Next is also triggered by a left- or right-swipe on the image.
Index — view thumbnails page
Go to the thumbnails index page of this gallery. This is usually equivalent to a browser Back request unless the gallery was entered at a specific image, except that the image-viewer page is remembered in browser history so you can return to it with a later Back.
Note — view image-description popup
Open the image's note, if one is available. As of 2.3, galleries can use notes to describe individual pictures on viewer pages. This adds a new component to galleries which choose to use it. To view an image's note, click on the toolbar's Note button, or up-swipe on the image itself on a touch screen. The note appears as a popup window at the bottom of the page, and can be dismissed by tapping its OK button, or anywhere outside the popup on most browsers. Images without a note always have a line-through on their Note button so you can skip them, and notes can be scrolled vertically for smaller screens and larger notes.

Keep in mind that this feature is optional and new: Note buttons will be present and up-swipes will open notes only if notes were enabled at gallery build time. If notes are unused, up-swipes open raw views as in 2.2; if notes are used, you can still open raw views with an image tap. Also note that Note popups don't stay open during Auto slideshows; tap Auto to stop and read a note along the way, per the next item here.

Auto — start/stop slideshow
Toggle the automatic slideshow on or off for this gallery. Slideshows run toolbar Next operations in time-delayed mode, automatically advancing to each next image after a fixed pause that may vary per gallery (it's 5 seconds by default). Use this to step through images without manual navigation; like Next, pages you visit aren't added to browser history, so you need not retrace your slideshow path later on browser Back requests.

When active, a slideshow applies to all thumbspage viewer pages visited in a single browser tab. They stop (really, pause) when you leave a gallery's pages, and may be cancelled or restarted at any time by pressing Auto again in any viewer page. The Prev and Next toolbar buttons work during, and do not cancel, an active slideshow; use these to skip or move to images during the show. You can also use Index or your browser's Back function to pick an image from the gallery's index page at which to continue the slideshow in progress. In most contexts, a Back or any other navigation that reenters a gallery resumes a slideshow left in progress too; press Auto to cancel whenever you like (and see ahead for a rare exception on Safari).

Update: as of version 2.1, the Auto button changes to be underlined as an indicator whenever the slideshow is on, and changes back to normal text when the slideshow is off. This helps make the show's state apparent, especially when it's first started or is resumed on return from another page.

Full — open/close one-page fullscreen (optional)
Toggle a page-induced fullscreen display on platforms that support one, for this page only. When present, the Full toggle maximizes the browser window and hides all browser and platform toolbars; another tap shrinks back to normal size. Some browsers and platforms don't support this fullscreen mode (e.g., iOS), and on all those that do, the fullscreen display lasts for just the current window: any navigation to a new image page cancels fullscreen mode—including Next, Prev, and automatically moving to the next image in an Auto slideshow. This obviously limits what you can do with Full.

Because of these limitations, the Full button and feature may be omitted on a per-gallery basis (it's enabled by default). When Full is available, it provides a per-image blowup/quick-zoom option (e.g., before and after), that may be easier than raw-image zooming via image taps. Users looking for a true fullscreen experience, however, may be better served by using browsers which support a manual fullscreen that spans multiple pages, including those in thumbspage slideshows; see the next section's fullscreen tip for pointers. Note that Full may be hidden on small displays; scroll the toolbar left as needed.

Update: like Auto, the Full button changes to be underlined as of 2.1 as an indicator that its fullscreen mode is on, and resets its font when its fullscreen is cancelled, whether by Full or outside the page (e.g., with an Escape key). Unlike Auto, though, fullscreen mode is obvious, and Full's font changes are not supported on all browsers. Moreover, even where supported, Full will not change for, and will not cancel, a fullscreen mode started independently of the page; for better or worse, user-initiated and page-initiated fullscreens differ, and browsers handicap the latter in the name of security.

Swipe Actions

Beginning with version 2.2, thumbspage viewer pages respond to swipe gestures on all devices and browsers which support them. Swipes require a touch screen (touch pads aren't supported), but they work broadly on both smartphones and Windows PCs, and in all dozen browsers tested except Internet Explorer (subject to one up-swipe limitation covered ahead).

To perform a swipe, start the gesture in the image-display area—that is, on the image itself—in any viewer page. The direction of the swipe determines its action:

Down-swipe — view info popup
This gesture opens the image-info dialog at the top of the page, and is the same as tapping the filename. As noted above, close the popup by tapping its OK, or anywhere outside the popup box on most browsers.
Up-swipe — view image note or raw display
This gesture invokes one of two actions, depending on how the gallery was built:

Left-swipe, right-swipe — view next and previous image
These gestures move forward and backward through the gallery, just like tapping the Next and Prev toolbar buttons. The direction of movement depends on a configuration setting at gallery build time, so try a few swipes to see how they step through the galleries you view. Per the preset default, left-swipe means next image (Next), and right-swipe means previous image (Prev).

You can test-drive swipes on a touch-screen device by running any of the demos listed here. Where available, swipes are simply a convenient alternative to other page actions. All former widget and toolbar taps described above still work as they did in prior versions, as do browser long-presses, pinch/spread zooms, and back/forward swipes. Mouse clicks naturally still work on non-touch displays too.

Usage tip: some browsers implement back/forward swipes as an alternative to buttons. thumbspage left/right swipes won't clash with these as long as both are performed well. Be sure to trigger browser back/forward with a short flick from screen edges, and begin thumbspage swipes in the page's image display. If this is difficult, you can also do back/forward by swiping above or below the thumbspage image-display area, or simply use browser back/forward buttons.

As usual with UIs, first-hand experience is also a great way to learn how to use thumbspage galleries; browse the examples in the thumbspage package, and test-drive the live demos at thumbspage's host site for more on index- and viewer-page interaction. The next section provides more info on gallery views.

Viewing Tips

This section collects additional assorted tips for viewing thumbspage galleries. Content you'll find here:

  1. JavaScript requirement
  2. Browser and device support
  3. Enable iOS 13's Hide Toolbar for Safari
  4. Fullscreen manual options
  5. iOS Chrome may stack navigation history
  6. Viewing galleries offline on PCs
  7. Viewing galleries offline on Android
  8. Viewing galleries offline on iOS?
  9. Beware browser settings and bugs
JavaScript requirement
Although thumbspage galleries work in any unextended browser, they do require that the browser's JavaScript support be enabled if you wish to use index pages' floating Top buttons, as well as viewer pages' navigation, image scaling, info popups, notes, swipes, automatic slideshows, and one-page fullscreen display. Both types of pages still function without JavaScript, but these features are either not displayed or inoperable when JavaScript is disabled.

Because viewer pages suffer most when JavaScript is off, they give you an alert when yours is disabled; here's one on desktop and mobile. JavaScript can be misused, but is fully harmless in code that thumbspage generates itself, and is essential for the sort of interactive-UI functionality offered by thumbspage galleries. In fact, most of today's web isn't quite usable without it—for better or worse. Please turn JavaScript on for the best thumbspage experience.

Update: as of version 2.3, JavaScript is now fully required for using the viewer pages created by thumbspage. This is normal on the web today, and was already effectively required in prior versions, because images did not scale and most widgets were inoperative. 2.3 made it official, with an enhancement that renders navigation buttons no-ops without JavaScript too, leaving no usable content. For more background, see the builder's note.

Browser and device support
Short story: thumbspage galleries should work well on all browsers and devices in common use today (and a few in uncommon use too). Galleries have been explicitly verified on dozens of browsers—including multiple versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Internet Explorer, and Opera, running on multiple versions of macOS, Windows, Linux, Android, and iOS. Galleries have also been verified on a range of PC and mobile devices, including displays as small as 4 inches.

Caveats: while no browsers or devices are known to be unable to display thumbspage galleries, some browsers have relevant quirks mentioned in other notes ahead; usability is naturally subject to browser and platform changes; and viewability is prone to decline with screen size (all bets are off on your watch). That said, HTML may not be a portability utopia, but thumbspage manages to make it work.

Enable iOS 13's Hide Toolbar for Safari
If you're using Safari on an iPhone, iPad, or iPod, thumbspage galleries are best viewed with iOS 13's Hide Toolbar option enabled. This option is available in the "aA" menu at the upper left of Safari's window, and is applied to all pages opened in an enabling tab, including all those in an Auto slideshow. Without this option, Safari reports sizes poorly on iOS, which makes thumbspage image-viewer windows require a scroll in landscape mode; with this option, both landscape and portrait work better, and links don't require an extra tap. Other browsers on iOS, including Chrome, don't have these issues.
Fullscreen manual options
As noted earlier, the Full button on thumbspage viewer pages is optional, because it lasts for just one page, and is supported unevenly across browsers. By contrast, many browsers offer a manual, user-initiated fullscreen mode that persists across page switches, including those of thumbspage Auto slideshows. Where available, this can be a much more useful alternative. The options for invoking a manual fullscreen are too many to cover here, but here's a quick rundown:

For additional tips and other platforms and browsers, try a web search, or consult your browser; browsers change regularly, and new fullscreen options may crop up over time. Manual and persistent fullscreen isn't available everywhere today, but it generally beats thumbspage's one-page Full where possible. You may still find thumbspage's Full useful as a quick zoom, though, especially on browsers that lack a manual option today. With any luck, those browsers will make Full fully superfluous in the not-too-distant tomorrow.

Update: on Android, the Opera web browser recently gained an amazing fullscreen mode for landscape that works much like those in desktop browsers, and spans multiple pages. For details, see this usage note at thumbspage's host site. The Opera browser is largely the same as Chrome under the hood, and runs thumbspage galleries just as well—and arguably better with its landscape fullscreen. Yet another reason to consider parting with the herd on Android.

(Defunct) iOS Chrome may stack navigation history
thumbspage image-viewer pages are not normally stacked (i.e., remembered) in browser history as you—or a slideshow you started—navigate through galleries. This by design, because it makes browser Back operations return to the viewer pages' entry point immediately, instead of stepping back though each image viewed. This may not work in some versions of Chrome on iOS, unfortunately, due to a bug in that browser. That bug appears to have been fixed in Chrome 83 (or earlier), but was known to still be broken as of Chrome 75. If your Chrome stacks pages, either retrace pages as needed for that browser's Back, or use any other iOS browser to view thumbspage galleries.
Viewing galleries offline on PCs
thumbspage bills its galleries as viewable both online (at a website) and offline (on your device). In more detail, online mode works universally on all devices, and offline is trivial on PCs (which means Windows, Linux, and macOS here)—a click in a file-explorer window (e.g., Finder or Explorer) normally suffices to open a gallery in your default browser, and right-clicks, browser Open functions, and explicit file:// URLs offer more options. On mobile devices, however, offline viewing isn't always as seamless, but you'll have to move on to the next two notes for the Android and iOS offline stories. macOS Safari users: see also the caveat ahead for the rare use case of browser Back returns to offline galleries.
Viewing galleries offline on Android
(TL;DR: jump to the latest update for new file-explorer options.) On some unrooted Androids, you may have trouble viewing a gallery stored locally on the device: the index page may open in a file explorer, but its thumbnails and viewer pages won't. This happens mostly in Chrome on newer Androids, and seems related to that platform's push to tighter permissions and content:// URIs. While these may be spun as security measures, that argument has been tiredly used for many an Android breakage.

thumbspage galleries are known to work offline on Androids Nougat, Oreo, Pie, and 10, but its releases and devices vary too widely to give universal advice here. If your offline gallery fails, try the following work-arounds that have proved successful in some contexts:

Especially on newer Androids, also make sure the browser has permission to access your files in storage. Firefox, for example, may require this on Android 10. Try Settings/Apps and navigate to storage permissions, or similar on your device. This has grown more crucial as later Androids have moved to lock down storage to app-specific sandboxes.

If you're technically inclined, you might also try running a web-server app on your device and viewing your gallery on localhost or a dedicated port number; this is wholly untested (but arguably awesome). Caveat: the upcoming Android 11 will clamp permissions down further (read the latest edicts here), but its impact on browser apps remains to be seen.

Update: for recent findings on both local-file views and running web-server apps on Android, see the off-page coverage here, which is part of an Android 11 review. In short, you can run a web server on Android, but your functionality may be limited and your disconnections many. Android 11 has also narrowed your options for local-file views in browsers, in the name of a security rationale; inoperable phones may be secure, but they're also inoperable.

Update: the thumbspage team recently discovered another route to offline viewing on Android. On Android 11, simply copy your content into the browser's own sandboxed folder, using a file explorer that has permission to do so (Solid Explorer and Cx File Explorer do at this writing). Then, use that folder's local path in a file:// URL in the browser to view offline. For example, copy content to these locations for Chrome and Opera (alas, this won't work for Firefox on 11, because it strips the file://):

This works for Chrome on Android 10 too, but isn't required for Opera or Firefox on 10, where they have full access to arbitrary storage paths (unlike both Chrome on 10, and all browsers on 11). This isn't the same as arbitrary file access, of course; you're limited to files dropped into a browser's folder. This is also an arguably terrible idea: your content in the sandbox folder will be deleted if you uninstall the browser, and is prone to being nuked if the browser ever resets its own folder. Hacker beware!

Update: in late 2021, some Android file explorers now provide seemingly heroic work-arounds on Android 11 that allow you to use a browser to view web pages stored locally on your phone—including thumbspage galleries. For example, among file-explorer apps tested:

Thus, your first step when trying to view locally stored thumbspage galleries on Android 11 and later today is to simply try opening them in a file-explorer app to see if they are supported automatically. For more details on the constantly evolving struggle between Android permissions and file explorers, see also the updates here and here.

Viewing galleries offline on iOS?
On unrooted Apple mobiles, iOS 13's enhanced Files app allows you to open files both on USB drives and copied to internal storage. This lets you view a gallery's pages, but doesn't open a browser. Instead, it runs a stripped-down quick-view that lacks JavaScript and shows just the top-level page's text, not any images it embeds. The net effect is much like recent Android Chromes of the preceding note, and your most direct recourse may be an online (or local network) upload. While there may be additional iOS options beyond thumbspage's testing budget, Apple has historically been more closed than Android (and its appetite for control seems only to be growing).
Beware browser settings and bugs
Some browser settings that may appear harmless can adversely impact thumbspage galleries. The native (a.k.a. raw) image display of some versions of Android Chrome, for example, may initially render some images weirdly large in portrait orientation, but if and only if the seemingly unrelated Force enable zoom is selected in Accessibility Settings. The image-tap raw displays of thumbspage viewer pages trigger this effect, but do not cause it—it also happens when visiting images' URLs directly, outside gallery pages. There's more on this issue in search results, while they last; its impact is broad, but likely to be reversed soon.

Nor is this an isolated case. As another example, the thumbspage team recently found and reported a settings-related bug in 2020's Android Firefox—though not thumbspage specific, this browser sometimes leaves an odd blank strip at the bottom of thumbspage viewer pages if you enable its "Scroll to hide toolbar" option (more details here). Thumbspage's host site also reported a bug in version 53 of Android Opera—though it does not impact thumbspage galleries (and was fixed in version 60), this browser strangely truncated the remainder of a page at a /* character sequence in text formatted with <pre>.

At the end of the day, thumbspage is completely dependent on browsers which change frequently and arbitrarily, and have an unfortunate history of fragility (indeed, at times it seems a website could be laid low by a good sneeze). For best results, clear settings that cause issues on Android, use similarly obscure browser behavioral switches with care, and try other browsers as a last resort when browser bugs—and enhancements—break your viewing experience.

For more tips on using thumbspage galleries, viewers are also encouraged to browse the rest of this document; although it's focused on gallery builds from here on, you can also find usage details along the way.

Building Galleries

This section is meant for gallery creators, who run thumbspage to build new galleries. It describes thumbspage install requirements, inputs and results, customization options, and other operational details. It's also a comprehensive tutorial that doesn't assume you are already a command-line wizard—which means more advanced readers may want to skim parts useful to others. If you're looking for info on how to use galleries, try the viewers' section first.

Examples: if you enjoy learning by example, you can also study the thumbspage demo sites online here and here for sparse but fast tutorials. These sites list their run logs, and use custom headers and settings which you don't need to code if the defaults work for your galleries.

Installs and Platforms

This section covers the basic logistics of using the thumbspage program to build galleries. The pages of the galleries it builds work on all browsers and platforms and require no extra installs or infrastructure, as covered earlier.

thumbspage itself is a Python program that runs on all major platforms, and is provided in source-code form which you run with your local Python. To install the program, download its zipfile from the Download section of the following web page and unzip it on your computer:

The thumbspage program also requires installs of Python 3.X (any X) to run its source code, plus the third-party Pillow (a.k.a. PIL) image library to extend the installed Python 3.X with image-processing tools. If they're not already present, fetch and install both these items from the following sites, respectively (or search the web for other links):

thumbspage can be run to build galleries on any platform that runs Python 3.X and Pillow, and has the required folder and file access permissions. For example, this program has been verified to run on Windows, macOS, Linux, and Android. The latter has unique requirements and permission rules; see the notebox below for usage on Android, as well as the similarly constrained iOS. For a related Pillow install pointer, see also this page.

As discussed ahead, as of version 1.7 thumbspage also uses the pure-Python and third-party piexif library to update image Exif tags, but this library's code is included and shipped with thumbspage itself on all platforms, and does not require a separate install.

A note for programmers: Pillow is used from Python for thumbnail generation, image rotation, and Exif-tag processing—which all occur at gallery-build (i.e., program-run) time. Images are scaled at image-display time instead by JavaScript code in generated viewer pages—which mix HTML, CSS, and JavaScript in a tangled and browser-specific morass that is the norm for web development today. The stew manages to work well anyhow.

thumbspage on Mobile

thumbspage galleries can be both viewed and built on mobile devices. This guide often focuses on the mobile portability of generated pages viewed, but it's also possible to run the program itself on your Android smartphone or tablet from a Python-aware app. For instance, thumbspage galleries can be built in the Termux app, after running both of the following commands (more details here, though the -y suggested there isn't recommended—it skips asking if you wish to proceed):

pkg install python ndk-sysroot clang make libjpeg-turbo
pip install Pillow

After this, thumbspage commands work in Termux the same as elsewhere. You can also launch thumbspage command lines on Android in Pydroid 3, after running the same pip command in its Terminal or using its Pip GUI, and other Python apps may provide additional options. To sample the flavor of thumbspage builds in Termux, check out the Android demos here, here, and here, plus the console log here.

Caveats: keyboards naturally boost command-line usability on cramped smartphones. Android also imposes proprietary access rules which limit the folders available to your Python app—and hence thumbspage; for more on its access rules which are beyond this guide's scope, see this doc. thumbspage may run on iOS too (e.g., the Pythonista app bundles a version of Pillow), but this is untested, and iOS's access rules have historically been tighter than Android's.

Running thumbspage

Once you've installed thumbspage and its required tools per the preceding section, you're ready to start turning your image folders into galleries. This section demonstrates how to run thumbspage on your computer. It also goes over command-line basics for users new to the technique.

Usage Example

For a basic launch of thumbspage, run script thumbspage.py from a command line with no command-line arguments. It can be run from a console (e.g., Terminal on macOS and Linux, Command Prompt on Windows, and whatever qualifies as a command shell in Android apps); and after opening its file in most Python IDEs (e.g., PyEdit and IDLE).

thumbspage's main options are selected with five console replies, or their enter-key defaults, on each run. The following example session gives user inputs in bold font. In its prompts, inputs are described in [], and defaults for empty replies are given in () (Windows users: be sure to use py -3 at the start of your command line, \ instead of / in your pathnames, and a C: or other drive letter if needed):

/.../content$ python3 /MY-STUFF/Code/thumbspage/thumbspage.py 
Images folder path [. or dir] (enter=.)? trnpix
Clean thumbs folder [y or n] (enter=y)? y
Thumbs per row [int] (enter=4)? 
Thumb max size [x, y] (enter=(100, 100))? 
Use image-viewer pages [y or n] (enter=y)? y
Cleaning: trnpix/_thumbspage/1996-first-pybook.png
Cleaning: trnpix/_thumbspage/1996-first-pybook.png.html
Skipping: .DS_Store
Making thumbnail: trnpix/_thumbspage/1996-first-pybook.png
Making thumbnail: trnpix/_thumbspage/1998-puertorico-1.jpg
Skipping: _cut
Skipping: _HOW.txt
Generating thumbnails index page
Generating view page for: 1996-first-pybook.png
Generating view page for: 1998-puertorico-1.jpg
Finished: see the results in the images folder, "trnpix".

Prompts and Replies

This section documents the input replies in the preceding usage example, numbering them from the first ? prompt to the last. As we'll see in the next section, the first of these can now be provided with a command-line argument instead; this bumps the others up in the list, but the options work the same either way. Here are the parameters you'll input to run thumbspage:

Reply #1: images folder
This is where you specify the source-image folder, which is also where results will appear. This reply accepts an absolute or relative folder pathname. For example, entering just folder means that folder in the directory where the script is being run, and /folder/folder and C:\folder\folder denote absolute paths to your image folder on Unix and Windows, respectively.

Special cases: a solitary . here means the directory where the script is being run, which is also the default for an empty reply (i.e., pressing your enter key only). You can also use other path syntax such as two dots for one level up (e.g., ../folder is a sibling); see the pathname primer ahead if you're new to such things. Tip: if you name a folder which has no images, you'll make an index page with a subfolder list.

Reply #2: clean first
You should generally opt to clean (i.e., empty) the thumbs folder first with a positive response for reply #2, unless images have only been added to the image folder (in which case cleaning means remaking old thumbs, but still works in any event). There's more on this option in the building tips ahead. Note this and all the following replies are not requested if you're building an index page for an imageless folder.
Reply #3: row size
Replies #3 and #4 allow you to tailor index-page thumbnails on each run. Additional thumbnail enhancements that may span runs are available as configuration settings described ahead.

For reply #3, give the number of thumbs you want to display in each row on the index page. The thumbs table automatically expands and shrinks with the page, and scrolls both horizontally and vertically where needed. Note that this input is not requested if you opt to use 2.1's new dynamic index-page layout alternative, because this layout determines the number of columns automatically from page size.

Reply #4: thumb size
For reply #4, give the requested pixel size of all thumbnails in the gallery. Enter two numbers separated by a comma for width and height (in that order), with optional spaces and enclosing parentheses. thumbs size input is a maximum area for all thumbs: thumbspage creates thumbnails no larger than this that retain their original aspect ratio. For instance, an input 100,100 makes thumbs 100x100 pixels large, but either side may be rendered less than 100 large if needed to avoid distortion. There's more on what that actually means in the sidebar at the end of this section.

Exception: as of version 2.3, thumb sizes provided as configs by file or argument can now give a single integer instead of a tuple, if both sizes are the same. Sizes input at the console, however, must still be 2-tuples as described here. See 2.3's update for details.

Reply #5: viewer pages
Finally, you should generally elect to use image-viewer pages with a positive response for reply #5, unless they don't work well in your use case. These pages have matured much since their introduction, and have no apparent downsides today. There's more on this option in the building tips ahead.

If you change your mind or make a mistake while inputting replies: you can cancel a run by typing a break or EOF key sequence (e.g., hold control and type a c or d) at any prompt, and thumbspage reports input errors nicely as demonstrated in this console log. For more examples of console runs on various platforms, see the logs folder.

Other Usage Modes

Besides the basic console interaction of the prior section, thumbspage also allows you to pass in the folder name as a sole command-line argument instead of a prompt reply. This allows you to use shell auto-completion on long folder names, though it's probably more useful in a console window than an IDE. Folder argument or not, you can also automate a launch by using command-line < syntax to provide canned input parameters in a text file, one per line (technically, by redirecting the stdin stream). These options yield at least three ways to start the program:

$ python3 thumbspage.py
Images folder path [. or dir] (enter=.)? trnpix
...4 other parameters prompted from input...

$ python3 thumbspage.py trnpix
...4 other parameters prompted from input...

$ python3 thumbspage.py < inputs.txt

In the last of these modes, parameters in the input file inputs.txt would like look the following; use an empty line to accept a prompt's default, and omit the first line if you provide the folder name as an argument in the command line instead:



Naturally, you can combine all these with shell syntax for pipes and output redirection (| and > file). For example, the following Unix session both sends input parameters to the script from one file, and saves its output to another; it also assumes shell variable $C has been set to name the folder where you unzip programs like thumbspage, and opts for 128-pixel thumbnails, 3 per row:

$ cat inputs.txt
128, 128

$ python3 $C/thumbspage/thumbspage.py trnpix < inputs.txt > report.txt
$ more report.txt
...output here...

Finally, on Unix systems—and Windows systems that have Unix subsystems or similar tools—you can also provide console inputs immediately following a command line, by using "here documents" of the sort available in Bash and other Unix shells. Using this in a script file allows you to code canned input parameters in the script itself, without having to juggle a separate file. The following demos the idea, but see your shell's docs for more details if needed; in short, it assumes $C is your install folder again, and provides canned inputs as tabbed lines between EOF markers:

$ cat generate.sh

python3 $C/thumbspage/thumbspage.py trnpix <<-EOF
	128, 128

$ bash generate.sh     # or just "generate.sh" if it's made executable via chmod
...output here...

Fine print: use just <<EOF and omit tabs if your shell requires it, and don't expect a 2> /dev/null to suppress input prompts here. The latter won't work, because Python's input() function prompts to stdout (well, often; this is inconsistent, and an open bug). The tagpix program supports prompt drops this way, but only because it uses a custom input() that prompts to stderr. Such redirects are dodgy in any event; messages for uncaught errors, including Python exceptions, may also be lost in the bargain.

You can catch the last of these ideas in action in the shell and Python scripts here, here, and here, used to automatically generate thumbspage's example galleries. thumbspage's full set of build scripts here may also provide pointers for more advanced automated builds, including automatic zips and uploads for external thumbspage clients. Although thumbspage's basic console interaction covered above should suffice for many use cases, automating its launches is straightforward, and may be necessary when thumbspage is used as a nested tool in a larger build system.

For more background on the shell techniques shown here, try the off-site overviews of streams, redirection, variables, and here docs. For more thumbspage usage examples, browse its examples folder. The console input prompts and arguments we've met in this section are really just the first level of options in thumbspage. The sections Customization and Building Tips that follow cover additional configuration options and usage details. First, the next section explores more basics for users new to running programs from command lines.

Update: thumbspage 1.7 added the optional folder-name command-line argument. To better reflect this, 1.7 also moved folder name to be the first prompt when not provided on the command line; this invalidates some older session logs where folder name was asked later, but the difference is trivial. 2.0 added nicer input-error reporting, replacing exception tracebacks. 2.1 omits the thumbs-per-row input when dynamic layout is chosen, because the input is moot in this mode, and omits all inputs but the first as irrelevant for imageless folders.

Update: thumbspage 2.2 added optional command-line config arguments, of the form setting=value. When used, these arguments are coded in the command line after the optional folder path, and override same-named settings in the configs file. With this extension, thumbspage command lines now take the following general form:

python3 thumbspage.py imagefolder? setting=value setting=value...

For full coverage of this feature, see the 2.2 release note.

Update: thumbspage 2.3 added new config settings that can be used to override console inputs. When provided, in the config file or command-line arguments, input values are taken from the settings, and no input is requested at the console's stdin. For example, a command line of the following form overrides two console inputs with arguments:

python3 thumbspage.py imagefolder inputCleanThumbsFolder=True inputThumbsPerRow=4

This provides are portable and uniform alternative to the shell redirect and here-document techniques described in this section. For more details, see the 2.3 release note and its command examples. As noted above, 2.3 also allows thumbs maximum size to be provided as a single integer instead of a tuple, when given by configs; see 2.3's note.

A Brief Primer on Pathnames

Because thumbspage is run from a command line, you need to know the basics of folder pathnames in the console realm. Luckily, this is much simpler than it may sound; as noted, the pathname you input at prompt #1 can be either:

For instance, when running thumbspage via command lines, you can cd (change directory) to the folder containing your source image folder, and give a folder path relative to where you are working:

$ cd /MY-STUFF/camerauploads
$ python3 /Code/thumbspage/thumbspage.py 
Images folder path [. or dir] (enter=.)? imagefolderhere
Or, run the program anywhere and give an absolute path to your images folder:
$ python3 /Code/thumbspage/thumbspage.py 
Images folder path [. or dir] (enter=.)? /MY-STUFF/camerauploads/imagefolderhere

Absolute paths are generally required when running thumbspage from an IDE such as PyEdit, if they run code in the program's folder. Also see your file explorer's options for copy/paste of a pathname to which you've navigated; it can often avoid having to type a long pathname at thumbspage prompts.

As you might expect, the thumbspage.py script's path in console command lines can be relative or absolute too, depending on your console's current directory. For instance, py -3 thumbspage.py suffices to start the program on Windows if run in the thumbspage install folder, though your images folder will reside elsewhere—and may be relative or absolute:

> cd thumbspage-install-folder
> py -3 thumbspage.py 
Images folder path [. or dir] (enter=.)? C:\MY-STUFF\camerauploads\imagefolderhere

If you'd like more background on command-line use, you'll find both online and brick-and-mortar resources that go into more detail. Here, the next section moves on to show you how to make your galleries more unique, after a brief technical sidebar.

More on Thumbnail Size Inputs

For console prompt #4, thumbnails sizes are input as a pair of numeric pixel dimensions, (width, height), where parentheses and blank spaces are optional. The underlying Pillow imaging library always adjusts your inputs as needed to preserve the original image's aspect ratio, instead of warping images.

Without getting into code, here are a few examples of how this works; thumbnail sizes input on the left of => are automatically changed to sizes used on the right:

For an original image of size 100w x 50h (wider):
    (300, 100) => (200, 100)
    (100, 300) => (100, 50)
    (50,  50)  => (50,  25)
    (100, 100) => (100, 50)
    (300, 300) => (300, 150)

For an original image of size 50w x 100h (higher):
    (300, 100) => (50,  100)
    (100, 300) => (100, 200)
    (50,  50)  => (25,  50)
    (100, 100) => (50, 100)
    (300, 300) => (150, 300)

For an original image of size 100w x 100h (square):
    (300, 100) => (100, 100)
    (100, 300) => (100, 100)
    (50,  50)  => (50,  50)
    (100, 100) => (100, 100)
    (300, 300) => (300, 300)

You can see more results and experiment with this on your own using this script. In short, input dimensions you provide are essentially maximums: they define an area in which to scale thumbs; they are only ever decreased to match original images; and one may be adjusted down to keep the aspect ratio the same as the original and avoid distorting the image.

If all that makes your brain hurt, remember this much: providing square target dimensions (with the same width and height) seems the simplest path; the common value will be the maximum for both dimensions of all thumbs in a gallery. See also 2.3's update which allows giving thumb size as a single integer in configs, when sizes are square.


The most common thumbspage customization options are available as console inputs on each run, as described in the preceding section. This section covers additional customization options enabled by file edits.

User Configurations File

A set of additional customizations are available as Python settings in file user_configs.py. See that file for its options, documentation on their roles, and their preset values. As examples, that file defines Unicode encodings; gives the names of the generated index page and thumbs folder; turns subfolder-link lists on or off; as of 1.5, configures most colors; and as of 1.6, allows images to expand beyond actual sizes, and users to control auto-rotation of images. Versions 1.7 and later add numerous options you'll generally find later in the configs file.

Updates: in addition to the configs file, thumbspage 2.2 supports config command-line arguments, of the form setting=value. When used, these arguments override same-named settings in the configs file, and provide an alternative and simpler way to customize settings that may vary per gallery build. For more on this feature, see the 2.2 release note.

Header and Footer Insert Files

For more custom behavior, add unique HTML code to the top and bottom of the index page by placing it in files named HEADER.html and FOOTER.html, respectively, and storing these files in the images folder alongside your images. You can use one, both, or neither of these files; if not present, generic HTML and text is automatically generated in the index page around the thumbs table. For details on how to code these files, see the demos in folder examples/ here. In brief:

Provides all of the page's HTML code up to the generated thumbnails table (or Top button or subfolder links, if used). This can be useful for adding page-specific content. For instance, header text can be used to describe the images on the page and provide related links, as in this example. Custom headers naturally assume some knowledge of HTML coding, but need not be complex, and can follow boilerplate examples (tip: generate a default index page for header code to start with). Here are the fine points on coding a header insert file of your own:

Provides the remainder of the page's HTML following the generated thumbnails table. It should add any post-table content and close the page with both </body> and </html>. For example, footer content might include navigation-toolbar links, or informational text; see both links for examples.

Subtlety: galleries which both use a custom footer and enable a floating Top button for the index page may also need to allow for extra end-of-page blank space in the footer's code to prevent the button from covering final non-fixed content; see the version 2.0 note ahead.

More Header Options

The generated thumbnail index table's code is self-contained, and requires no support code in a custom header. Conversely, a custom HEADER.html file can use CSS style code to alter the thumbs table in ways not supported by basic user settings (e.g., to tailor index-table font). The way you'll do this depends on the index-page layout model chosen:

For an example of this technique in action, see the online demo site here.

Beginning with 2.0, it's also possible to code scripts that replace an HTML comment automatically added to the <head> of default index headers and precoded in viewer pages for this purpose. See this note ahead for more details, as well as this script for an example that leverages this hook to insert analytics code in generated index pages prior to uploads. More generally, this lets programmers add arbitrarily custom code to default index-page headers, and may avoid custom headers in some use cases.

Viewer-Page Template File

As of version 1.6, viewer pages can also be changed arbitrarily by editing the template file template-viewpage.html in this program's install folder (use "view source" in your browser to see its code). For example, such edits might add site icons, analytics code, or navigation widgets specific to your usage or site. Edit with care (this file's code is fragile!) and rerun thumbspage to use your customized template.

Starting in 2.0, you can also customize viewer pages by programmatically replacing the automatic <head> comments noted in the prior section and described here. Though this requires some programming skills, it is probably a safer option than changing the viewer template in place, especially if you ever upgrade to a new release (your edits won't be overwritten by an unzip).

Floating-Top Template File

As of version 2.0, you can also customize the optional floating Top button of index pages, by editing the new source-code file template-floatingtop.html, which host the button's implementation code. This isn't normally necessary, because nearly every property of the Top button can be customized with settings in the configs file, per the 2.0 change note.

Image Note Files

As of version 2.3, you can optionally provide plain-text note files for any or all of your image files, to provide descriptions or narration for the images in your gallery. These notes are displayed as a popup in viewer pages when users tap the tollbar Note button, or up-swipe on the image on touch displays.

When present, note files appear alongside images in the images folder, and are named with a .note extension following the corresponding image file's name. For instance the note for an image file photo1.jpg should be named photo1.jpg.note. Note files may contain any Unicode text, including emojis, though HTML code is shown verbatim (links won't work). Lines are collapsed into paragraphs, with the exception that a blank line coded as two adjacent line breaks (i.e., \n\n) is taken to be a paragraph separator, and renders as a blank line in the popup.

This feature may be disabled, and Note buttons and their up-swipe appears only if this is enabled and at least on note file is present in the images folder. For a demo of notes in action, see this gallery. For more details on notes, see the 2.3 release note. Related: if you use notes, you may also be interested in 2.3's thumbs-only index pages.

Summary: thumbspage Folders

To tie together the ideas covered so far, the following sketches the structure of an images folder processed by thumbspage, with generated parts in bold font and default names and behavior applied:

Your image source folder/
    Your image files...
    Optional image.note files...
    Optional HEADER.html
    Optional FOOTER.html
        Thumbnail-image files...
        Viewer-page files...

Open the generated index.html file to view the thumbspage gallery, and package the entire images source folder to distribute. Exceptions: HEADER.html, FOOTER.html, and image .note files, if used, are required at gallery build time only, and need not be present when a gallery is viewed. This follows from the fact that header and footer contents are embedded in generated index pages, and image notes are embedded in generated viewer pages. Shipping these files to content consumers is optional.

You can view raw examples of generated index and viewer pages and _thumbspage/ folders online here, here, and here, and their live renditions here. In addition to the images-folder content sketched above, some files in the thumbspage install (unzipped) folder are available for user customizations:

thumbspage install folder/
    Implementation files...
Edit user_configs.py and the HTML template files as you like for your galleries. Not shown above, your image folders may also contain subfolders that might show up in bullet lists on the index page; but to explore special cases like this we have to move on to the next section.

Building Tips

This section collects assorted pointers for thumbspage gallery builders. Though arguably random, it covers some of the most common issues and border cases that may arise when using the program. Notes you'll find here (be sure to also browse Version History for tips omitted in this section):

  1. Viewer pages (or not)
  2. Image filenames text and length
  3. Supported image types
  4. Other image-folder content
  5. Subfolder bullet lists
  6. Linking to results with URLs
  7. Tilted-image rotation
  8. Cleaning the thumbs folder
  9. Thumbs-folder name
  10. Extra-files overhead
  11. A word on image size and speed
Viewer pages (or not)
The image-viewer pages added in version 1.5 are optional. If subpar in your use case, they can be disabled via the last console reply (see Running thumbspage above) to use the former browser-native display. As of 1.6, though, these pages scale displayed images well everywhere: images grow and shrink with the window or display, without changing their aspect ratio, distorting content, or overflowing their bounds. As a fallback (and for better zooms in some contexts), users may also click these pages' "Raw" links for browser-native view.

Update: as of version 1.7, viewer pages are even more functional—with info-dialog popups on filename taps, and easier Raw-display access via image clicks—and repair some former large-font issues (see the release notes). These pages are now broadly recommended.

Update: as of version 2.0, "Raw" button taps are now fully replaced by image taps, and new "Auto" and "Full" buttons provide slideshows and one-page fullscreen, respectively; see 2.0's release notes, and use viewer pages.

Image filenames text and length
Although thumbspage properly escapes and handles arbitrary image filenames, those in your galleries should generally avoid characters illegal on some filesystems (e.g., "), especially if they are to be viewed on multiple devices. By contrast, galleries uploaded to a web server need satisfy only their server's filename rules.

Also note that because filenames used on labels are not line-wrapped, their width largely determines column spacing on the index page. As a rule of thumb (pun intended...), use shorter filenames for narrower columns.

Update: on a related point, version 2.0 now wraps or scrolls absurdly long file and folder names; see the release note.

Supported image types
Images in the source folder are detected by MIME type (i.e., filename extension). All files there with an image MIME type are considered an image by thumbspage and included in the generated gallery, whether they have camera-oriented Exif tags or not. For example, JPEGs, PNGs, GIFs, BMPs, TIFFs, and more all qualify.

That said, thumbspage galleries can display only image types supported by both the Pillow library used to build their thumbnails, and the web browsers used to view their pages. While Pillow happily creates thumbnails for nearly every image type under the sun (with some exceptions: see the HEIC update ahead), web browsers are much more limited.

TIFFs, for example, yield correct thumbnails and display well in Safari, Edge, and Internet Explorer, but cannot be displayed by Chrome or Firefox. The upstart WebP format similarly is supported by Pillow (and hence by thumbspage builds); but support is an add-on in some versions of Edge and still growing in Safari (and hence in thumbspage views). See this shot for current results in Chrome (top left), Firefox, and Safari (right).

Because of these constraints, the support story today reads as follows:

Some browsers may ask to auto-open some exotic image types in another program, but this isn't the same as in-page support. If your TIFFs (or other) images don't display in a browser you use, your best recourse is to convert them to a more widely supported format for use in thumbspage, such as PNG or JPEG. A "Save as" in your local image editor will generally suffice. For a demo of common supported image types, see examples/mixedtypes. For more on browser image support, try this page or this search.

Also note that the above pertains only to image display. Support for image metadata—of the Exif-tag sort displayed by info popups—varies by image type too. JPEGs are generally tag rich, for example, but PNGs, TIFFs, and WebPs may be more spotty, and image libraries may not recognize newer formats. thumbspage collects metadata where possible, and omits it elsewhere.

One browser-specific caution: a somewhat dated Safari (2015's version 9) on macOS has been seen to crash altogether when trying to display a PBM in the mixed-types demo pages, for unknown reasons that are well beyond the scope of the thumbspage project. Safari updates, image conversions, and other browsers are the suggested remedies.

Update: in 2021, support for Apple's HEIF/HEIC image format common on iPhones is still not present in either stock Pillow or Python's mimetypes module (the latter means it won't appear in galleries at all), but it might be usable in thumbspage with a third-party library and programming solutions. Barring such extensions, your best bets may be to convert these images to JPEGs, or change your Camera or Photos settings to save or transfer in JPEG format, respectively. Try searches here and here for pointers.

Other image-folder content
Because images in the source folder are detected by their MIME types (per the prior note), all non-image items in the source folder are simply ignored. Hence, it's safe to include arbitrary files and folders in the images folder; apart from the next note's special case, all unrelated items, including Unix hidden files, are always skipped and ignored by thumbspage.

Update: beginning in 2.3, files in the images folder with a .note extension are special, and provide image notes displayed in the UI when present; see the 2.3 coverage. Technically, header and footer files are similarly special.

Subfolder bullet lists
As a special content case, subfolders in the images folder will show up near the top of the index page in a subfolder-links bullet list, if the subfolders feature is enabled in the configurations file. This allows your pages to provide access to nested content—including details about the folder, or image folders within image folders—if useful in your galleries. For example, you might use this to describe a gallery's images, instead of text in a custom header file.

Exception: subfolders named with a leading _ or . character are not included in the bullet list; the former is considered developer private per Python convention, and the latter is hidden per Unix convention. See version 1.1's note ahead for more subfolders lists in general; version 1.7's update to skip .* subfolders too; and version 2.1's customizable space between subfolder-list items.

Linking to results with URLs
When referencing this program's results in hyperlink URLs, note that links to generated folders of forms .../folder and .../folder/ work only when a web server is present. Use the more complete and explicit form ...folder/index.html to also (or only) view results offline. To link to individual images, use either their image-file or viewer-page URLs; the latter gives access to the gallery and its formatting. In sum:
...folder/index.html                   # the index page
...folder/image.jpg                    # an image itself
...folder/_thumbspage/image.jpg.html   # an image's viewer page
Tilted-image rotation
As of version 1.6, any images that are "tilted" (stored by cameras and smartphones with orientation tags, and content shifted to a side) are by default automatically rotated to display right-side up—both the image itself and its thumbnail. This works for all images with usable Exif orientation tags (see the standard), which generally includes all JPEG photos created by recent devices, and as of version 1.7 propagates Exif metadata tags to the rotated image.

Because rotation changes the source image file in-place for browser inline display, the original image is by default first saved with a .original filename extension in the source folder as a backup copy. See user_configs.py for settings that allow users to disable this feature and/or its backups; the included simple utility script that restores all originals from backups; and 1.6 release notes and later updates to them in Version History ahead for more background (version 2.1, for example, adds deletion of embedded thumbnails on rotations).

Cleaning the thumbs folder
thumbspage always regenerates viewer pages for each image on each run, so they correctly reflect your image set. For speed, though, image thumbnails created in prior runs are reused if present in the thumbs subfolder: new versions are not created, even if images have changed. Hence, you should always select the "Clean thumbs folder" console option in reply #2 (see Running thumbspage earlier) to force regeneration of thumbnails if any images have been changed or removed.

Conversely, folder cleaning is not required if images are only added to the images folder—thumbnails will be made for new images only, and thumbs for previously added images will be retained. This can save substantial time when extending large image folders. But when in doubt, clean; this script's work is done once, before any views.

Thumbs-folder name
The nested folder used to store generated thumbnails and viewer pages is named _thumbspage by default, in user_configs.py. It is not named with a leading . character to make it a Unix hidden file, because hidden files are rude (you should really see what programs do to your computer), and may be skipped by some compression and backup programs (e.g., see ziptools and Mergeall at learning-python.com). The default name can be freely changed to be hidden if . tradeoffs are acceptable in your usage (but you didn't hear that here).
Extra-files overhead
This script adds two files for every one source image (thumbnail and viewer page). That's negligible in most use cases, but may become significant in archives with very many files (10k images means 20k extra files). Incremental backup tools like Mergeall, for instance, may need to analyze and skip all files added. If this impacts your usage, thumbs folders can be zipped into single file archives where appropriate and needed.
A word on image size and speed
The trade-off between image quality and download speed is a classic dilemma on the web, and remains a peripheral factor when using image-focused programs like thumbspage. While this factor is not unique to thumbspage, and applies only to galleries published live on the web, this note provides a few tips on the subject.

The issue: when published online, thumbspage's thumbnail-index pages load quickly, but its image-viewer pages must download images in full before scaling them to browser windows. As a consequence, some large images in thumbspage galleries may download slowly on some servers or clients. In early 2020, for example, large (e.g., 2-6M) image transfers on the business-hosting server that houses thumbspage were usually very quick (e.g., 2-3 seconds), but sporadically throttled down to an outright crawl (e.g., 20-30 seconds). It's unclear if this speed hit was due to traffic on the server itself or the broadband and cellular client networks accessing it, but similar delays may occur in other contexts. Such delays can obviously be discouraging to site visitors, and posting large images in general might even be rude to users with limited or metered bandwidth.

The remedy: if the full-size images in galleries you build with thumbspage load too slowly, your recourses include moving to a faster hosting server, and downscaling the size or quality of very large images. Of these, downscaling images may be easiest, cheapest, and politest. The Pillow library, for instance, has tools that you can leverage in a Python script to reduce image filesize by scaling down image dimensions and quality. Better yet, get the new shrinkpix program for a precoded solution that uses Pillow this way to reduce the size of one or all image files in your website. However you opt to shrink, be sure to regenerate thumbspage galleries to reflect your newly shrunk images' information displayed in info popups.

A faster, and perhaps dedicated, server may help too, but not for users on metered connections or slow client networks; for such visitors, smaller images (e.g., < 500K) may be the only fix, and even then will solve speed issues only if network throttling isn't extreme. The website hosting thumbspage has resisted downscaling its images in the past for the sake of both image quality and usage demonstration, but at this writing is in the process of shrinking images globally. Downscaled or not, if images here are still slow for you, you can always view most of this site's thumbspage demos by downloading and unzipping to your machine and viewing locally. This includes thumbspage's own examples—fetch its full package for quick off-line image views.

In a better world, online images would by now be immune to the scourges of metered access and traffic bottlenecks. In the world in which we code, profit will probably always trump societal need, and the web's mass popularity will probably always best its technological progress.

Update: per testing so far, shrinking large images with the shrinkpix program mentioned above both removes observed slowdowns, and seems to yield faster views. The primary downsides are minor and rare reductions in full-size image quality (described in shrinkpix's caveats), and potentially degraded quality for thumbnails. thumbspage 1.7 solved the latter issue by converting some images to "RGBA" color mode temporarily when making their thumbnails; this produces results as good as for unshrunk originals, and has the added benefit of improving thumbnail quality for some unshrunk GIF images too. See the 1.7 update note and shrinkpix docs for more details.

Update: with the benefit of hindsight, most of the speed issues related to images at thumbspage's site stemmed from web-host speed, not image-file size. Speed issues were finally resolved in full in Spring 2020, by moving this site from its former GoDaddy host to an AWS Lightsail VPS server. The speed increase for thumbspage galleries was staggering, and far surpassed the gain from reduced image-file size (which was so overshadowed by host sloth, that it could not be reliably measured). Still, shrinking images was important for users on metered-bandwidth clients; images at this site are all now 500K or less (and average about half that size), and that's much less to ask of casual browsers than the former 6M bandwidth bombs.

Update: for completeness, it's worth noting that you can shrink a website's images dynamically with Apache's mod_pagespeed (a.k.a. PageSpeed) module. This ambitious module attempts to optimize size of fetched images by automatically resizing and caching for future requests. Unfortunately, you have little control over this process—or the quality of the images it produces. Worse, this module also mangles page code for transmission (a rude nonstarter for sites that double as page-coding resources), and abruptly crashed this site's Apache server when applied by default by a Bitnami install stack (despite the module's experimental "Incubating" status). Your mileage may vary, but static image-size reduction seems a more deterministic—and safer—approach.

GUI Mode

Besides its HTML galleries, you can also view and click thumbspage's generated thumbnails in GUI mode (i.e., without a web browser), by running the included tkinter example from the book where parts of thumbspage first appeared. This GUI works on Windows (any version), Unix (macOS and Linux), and probably on Android (using a launcher script in the Pydroid 3 app). To start, pass it any image folder's pathname as a command-line argument, as follows:

/.../thumbspage$ python3 viewer_thumbs.py examples/unicode/images     # Unix

c:\...\thumbspage> py -3.3 viewer_thumbs.py examples\unicode\images   # Windows

This is, however, a very basic and limited viewer GUI (and today even confesses as much). The book's later PyPhoto example is a much more useful GUI, with navigation, image scaling and zooms, and scrollbars for both indexes and images (as seen here and here). More recently, a much-upgraded PyPhoto is now available standalone, at the following site (it's a bundled PyGadget):


Also note that thumbspage itself can serve as an image viewer too. Because its results can be viewed both online and offline in any desktop or mobile browser, they can be used for both remote and same-device viewing; your page and browser become the GUI and its host.

Update: running the GUI-viewer command lines above requires the full examples/ folder, which may not be included in your thumbspage download package (it may be better accessed online as of version 2.1 due to its size). See the main web page to fetch this folder if desired and required, or use the pathname of a different image folder of your own.

Update: as of 2.1, the GUI viewer always stores its thumbnails in a subfolder named by the THUMBS setting in the configs file, which is also used by the HTML gallery builder, and is preset to _thumbspage. This ensures that the viewer won't make a separate thumbnails folder, unless you change the setting between gallery and viewer runs. If changed, the viewer's thumbs folder may be redundant, but won't appear in gallery index pages as long as THUMBS starts with a leading _ or . (the viewer's former default did not). More on subfolder lists here.

Usage Caution

Finally, a word from the legal department. thumbspage has been tested extensively and used successfully on a wide variety of photo collections, and will likely perform well on yours too. It is provided freely because it can help you view and display your image libraries. Given the many ways that computers can fail, however, a word of caution is in order:

Please note: by design, this program will modify your images folder in-place, and may modify some of its images after backups. To the folder, it adds an HTML index-page file (named index.html by default), along with a subfolder (named _thumbspage by default) containing thumbnails and HTML viewer pages. As preconfigured, it also rotates any tilted images and deletes their embedded thumbnails, after saving unmodified backup copies with .original extensions. Run this program on folder copies if you don't want it to change your valued photo collections directly, and read this guide for full program-usage details.

All that being said, keep in mind that you can easily delete the file and folder added; original versions of rotated images can be easily restored with the included script restore-prerotate-originals.py; and both image rotations and thumbnail deletions can be disabled in user_configs.py. Moreover, if you always run thumbspage on a copy of your source images folder, your originals will never be changed by the program in any way. Still, the importance of your photos merits a complete understanding of any tool that modifies them—this one included.

Version History

Like much in life, thumbspage improves with time and experience. This section describes changes made in thumbspage releases, most recent first. It goes into implementation details that may be primarily of interest to developers, though users can find additional context here too (and the border between thumbspage users and developers is porous at best).

Before jumping into the releases, here are two global admin notes up front. First, for readers of code—you can generally find changes made to code by searching source files for a version number enclosed in square brackets. For example, looking for [1.6] will turn up version 1.6 code changes in most code files; a release year or date in brackets may also work in some contexts, especially for older releases.

Second, for detail-minded fetchers—if you find that a zipfile or its contents are dated later than the current version's latest release date, it just means that trivial non-code fixes were applied in a rezip. This almost certainly implies minor doc typos (which have a nasty habit of hiding until just after a release). Significant changes, and all code changes, are always called out with a new release date or number here.

For readers who want to save a Top click, here's an index to the version coverage in this section:

2.3: Notes, Inputs

thumbspage 2.3, published initially on February 8, 2022, includes three major new features, plus smaller upgrades. This section provides overviews of its new image notes, console-input overrides, enhanced tooltips, and other changes. You can also find a demo of image notes and tooltips in the 2.3 examples folder.

Updates: 2.3 was repackaged most recently on May 9, 2022 with code changes to support custom colors and opacity in info and Note viewer-page popups; improved dynamic layout for index pages; omitted filename labels on index pages; fixes for three minor buglets; and a small builders-UI enhancement.

Image Notes

With 2.3, galleries can optionally include notes for images, which are displayed as popups in viewer pages when requested by either taps on Note buttons or up-swipes on touch devices. This provides a way to describe or narrate any or all of the images in your galleries, and opens up an new presentation dimension for both builders and users.

This section covers this feature in full, but if you wish to test-drive notes up front, visit the 2.3 upgrades example, as well as the online training-pictures gallery. Other examples do not yet have notes, because this wasn't available until 2.3; galleries that predate 2.3 were regenerated with 2.3, but those without notes work as they did before. You can also read the users perspective in the viewing section here and here, and the parallel coverages in the customizations section and the configs file.

How Notes Work

In more detail, image-viewer pages may now include a Note toolbar button, which displays the plain text of an imagefilename.note file near the bottom of the page, if such a file is present in the images folder at gallery build time. This feature is enabled by coding one or more note files. It can be disabled by the config file/argument setting useImageNotes, and is automatically disabled if no .note files exist for any images in the folder (this avoids showing Note buttons on viewer pages which would all be no-ops).

When notes are enabled, up-swipe on the image on touch displays is also changed to open the note, instead of raw-image view. This is symmetric with down-swipes that open the info popup at top of page. Raw view is still available via a simple image tap when notes are used, but the 2.2 upSwipeOnAllBrowsers setting is ignored in this case, because up-swipe opens the Note popup instead, and works on all browsers; unlike raw view, no page switch is required for notes.

More formally, image notes is a backward-compatible extension, with behavior that works as follows:

If useImageNotes is False OR no images have .note files:

    - No Note buttons are displayed in viewer-page toolbars
    - Any .note files in the images folder are ignored
    - Up-swipes work as they did in 2.2, opening raw-image views

If useImageNotes is True AND any image has a .note file:

    For images with a .note file:
        - The viewer page shows a Note button with normal font and color
        - Note taps pop up the .note file's content as plain text
        - Up-swipes also open the note file's content, not raw-image views
    For images without a .note file:
        - The viewer page still shows a Note button, but with line-through
        - Note taps and up-swipes work, but show default text "(No note)"

In other words, viewer pages are the same as they were in 2.2 if no note files are present, but gain Note buttons and redefine up-swipe if notes are enabled. Because useImageNotes is preset to True in the configs file, notes are by default enabled and disabled by the presence and absence of .note files in the images folder, respectively. The setting provides an extra level of control when needed.

Two fine points: first, notes are displayed during Full one-page fullscreens, but do not stay open during Auto slideshows, because images would be both shaded and obscured; tap Auto to stop the show if you wish to read a Note. Second, .note files, like custom header and footer files, need not be present when a gallery is viewed; because .note files' text is embedded in generated viewer pages, these files are required at build time only.

Coding Notes

To code a note for an image, simply create a plain-text file with a .note extension in the images folder, alongside the image itself. For example, make text file images/photo.jpg.note to give the Note text for image file images/photo.jpg. Here's a typical note file from 2.3's demo. You can create notes for any, all, or none of your images; images without an associated note display Note buttons with a line-through and display default note text, and no Note buttons appear if there are no note files.

In terms of content, any Unicode character can appear in a note file, including emojis. In addition, characters special to JavaScript or HTML are automatically escaped and render verbatim. ' and \, for instance, appear literally and do not impact note text, and <A> displays as is rather than producing a hyperlink (notes are plain text by design, for simplicity). For a demo of special-character escapes, see the note here.

Note content loaded from .note files is decoded per the Unicode config setting noteEncoding, which is preset to UTF-8. You can use any text editor to create note files, but be sure that files are saved in a Unicode encoding compatible with this setting if non-ASCII characters are present.

When note-file contents are displayed, the viewer-page popup collapses all text into a single paragraph, except that an empty line coded as two adjacent line breaks in the note (i.e., \n\n in Python, with no spaces between), is treated as a paragraph break in the popup, and renders as a blank line. You can use this to code as many paragraphs as you like, though as a guideline, notes should be relatively short, especially for use on mobile (a picture is, after all, already worth 1k words).

The Note popup itself expands and shrinks with the window, and its text scrolls vertically if too tall for the page. If desired, the width of the popup can be adjusted by the config file/argument setting noteBoxVSpace, which gives the CSS size for both left and right margins, and can be any size type (e.g., 10% or 5px). The preset 15% makes the popup span 70% of the page, and reflects a compromise between mobile (where wider is better) and desktop (where the popup tracks the width of the window).

Tip: if your gallery includes images notes, filename labels might be superfluous on its index page. See the thumbs-only index page option ahead to omit these labels if they don't add any value to your gallery.

Batching Notes

One potential downside of using individual .note files is that they are somewhat scattered, making it difficult to treat them as a set (e.g., to spellcheck all notes before publishing a gallery). To address this, 2.3 also includes a utility script, batchnotes.py, which collects all of an image folder's note files into a single text file, with separator lines and sorted by filename. The result can be easily pasted into a spellchecker, or otherwise managed.

See the script for usage, and see its output for the 2.3 upgrades example, as well as the online training-pictures demo. In principle, this script's output could be split into individual note files (and hence provide an alternative way to code them), but no use case for this has arisen thus far.

Colorizing Notes (and Info)

Like info popups, 2.3's Note popups initially inherited the color scheme of viewer pages at large, whose preset was white text and border on black. This generally makes sense because additional colors can clash with gallery images, but some colors may make text difficult to read on some displays, especially for larger notes. Bright white text on full black, for instance, may be too glaring for some readers. To compensate, 2.3's latest May 2022 release allows builders to customize the background, foreground text, and border colors of both Note and info popups. Any or all of these three colors may now differ arbitrarily from those of the viewer pages in which the popups appear.

To tailor these popups' colors, assign the new popup*Color settings in either the configs file or its command-argument equivalents. Their preset defaults of None mean the settings inherit their values from the enclosing viewer page as before, for backward compatibility (technically, None selects the corresponding viewer*Color setting). If any of the three new settings are not None, their values are applied to popup dialogs. The following build commands, for example, may improve text readability by specifying muted white text to minimize glare on the default black background; off-white text on an off-black background; and a black-on-grey popup scheme:

$ py3 .../thumbspage.py images/ popupFgColor=\'#dddddd\'
$ py3 .../thumbspage.py images/ popupBgColor=\'#181818\'  popupFgColor=\'#cccccc\'
$ py3 .../thumbspage.py images/ popupBgColor=\'darkgrey\' popupFgColor=\'black\' popupBorderColor=\'white\'
In these settings' names, Fg means foreground text, Bg is the dialog's background, and Border denotes borders around both the dialog and its OK button. When used, these new popup colors are applied to both Note and info popups, but not to viewer pages at large, whose toolbars, filenames, and image borders still follow viewer*Color viewer-page settings. While graphic arts is a topic beyond this doc's scope, popup colors as a rule should blend well with the viewer page. In accommodation, popup OK buttons' background and foreground colors by design still match the page, not the popup; only their borders respond to the new popup color settings.

To sample the effects of these new configs, see the 2.3 gallery captures starting here, as well as the training-photos gallery. The former's notes give additional tips and command examples, and the latter's generate and publish scripts use command forms like those above to make popup text more readable. As part of this upgrade, OK buttons also morphed in appearance slightly, and gained rounded corners to match the enclosing popup box; this is a visual change, but the mod may vary by browser, and is too minor to warrant fanfare (or a new version number).

Console-Input Overrides

With 2.3, all console inputs can now be provided with config-file or config-argument settings, instead of actual inputs. This resolves an inconsistency that arose in version 2.2: config command-line arguments were allowed to override settings in the configs file, but a disjoint set of parameters was still always input at the console (technically, from stdin).

As of 2.3, these inputs can now be provided by either config-file or config-argument settings, but are still asked by default so existing builds are not affected. The net result provides a portable and uniform alternative to shell input techniques, which is backward compatible with earlier releases.

Input-Override Configs

In more-concrete terms, the following new config settings correspond to inputs requested interactively at the console in all prior releases:
inputImagesFolderPath  = None    # string 'path' (iff not first argument)
inputCleanThumbsFolder = None    # True or False
inputThumbsPerRow      = None    # integer (iff not dynamic layout)
inputThumbMaxSize      = None    # 2-tuple of ints (or int x == x,x)
inputUseViewerPages    = None    # True or False

Of these, inputImagesFolderPath is never asked (and is ignored) if the images folder path is provided in the command's first argument (per 1.7); and inputThumbsPerRow is never asked (and is ignored) if dynamic index-page layout is used (per 2.1).

Any or all of these settings may be provided in the config file itself, or as setting=value command-line arguments, which were added in 2.2 and take precedence over the file's settings. However provided, these settings may override inputs as follows:

For backward compatibility, all input-override settings are preset to None in the config file, to ask by default. Hence, this requires no changes in existing build systems that predate 2.3. When used, however, input-override configs make command recall more useful, and can replace shell < inputs redirects and <<EOF here documents discussed earlier, which are not generally portable across platforms and shells.

About precedence: with this change, build parameters may be provided in three different forms. When multiple setting forms are used, command-line arguments have the highest precedence, followed by the config file's variables, and then console inputs. That is, arguments are used first and inputs are tried last, and inputs are not requested if overridden by either argument or file. Special case: for the image-folder name, the first command-line argument, if provided, has higher precedence than all three other parameter sources.

Input-Override Examples

With the addition of input-override configs, thumbspage build commands are both flexible and complex. As a tutorial, the following provides examples of common command structures, assuming C is a shell variable set to the folder where you unzipped thumbspage's source-code (extrapolate as needed on non-Unix platforms):
Folder by first arg, dynamic layout, inputs by config file or console

  $ python3 $C/thumbspage/thumbspage.py . useDynamicIndexLayout=True

Folder by first arg, dynamic layout, all inputs by args

  $ python3 $C/thumbspage/thumbspage.py . \
       useDynamicIndexLayout=True \
       inputCleanThumbsFolder=True inputThumbMaxSize=128,128 inputUseViewerPages=True

Folder by first arg, fixed layout, all inputs by args

  $ python3 $C/thumbspage/thumbspage.py trnpix \
       inputCleanThumbsFolder=True inputThumbsPerRow=4 \
       inputThumbMaxSize=100,100 inputUseViewerPages=True

Folder by config arg, fixed layout, others by config file or console

  $ python3 $C/thumbspage/thumbspage.py inputImagesFolderPath=\'.\'

Folder and all others by config file or console

  $ python3 $C/thumbspage/thumbspage.py

As a guideline, use the config file for settings that are defaults or universal, and either arguments or console inputs for settings that may vary from build to build. Console inputs can still be used by build scripts coded to provide them before 2.3, but their config overrides are handy for launching a build quickly with shell command recall, and are a natural extension to the config-argument model.

Nit: inputs provided by config file or argument are not error checked as much as actual console inputs. Configs are checked for valid Python syntax, but may yield invalid values or types which won't generally cause harm but may trigger exceptions and aborts during a build. thumbspage assumes that builders clever enough to edit the config file or pass command arguments are also clever enough to provide valid inputs. Still, lapses aren't out of scope for even the best of us; builders beware!

Tooltips: Enhanced, Enabled

With 2.3, tooltips are now enabled by preset default, because viewer-page toolbars are now busier when Note is used. In addition, tooltips have been added for the Prev, Next, and Index buttons for consistency, and the former HTML hrefs used as a fallback for navigation buttons have been removed, because the mouseover URL popups they invoked are redundant with the buttons' now-default tooltips, and were noticeably more obtrusive. As before, tooltips do not work on mobile browsers, even with a stylus or mouse.

Caveat: the removal of hrefs now makes Prev, Next, and Index unusable without JavaScript in 2.3, because the hrefs formerly provided a fallback when JavaScript was disabled. This is a backward-incompatible change, but given that viewer pages were almost completely unusable without JavaScript already (e.g., images were not sized to the display, and other widgets did not work), this seems a small cost to pay for avoiding the former and distracting mouseover URL popups. It does, however, leave no usable widgets without scripting.

Hence, thumbspage viewer pages now officially require JavaScript. This was previously resisted, but JavaScript is now generally mandatory on the web at large, and is a necessary and reasonable tradeoff for enhanced utility of the sort provided by viewer pages. As before, a message is posted at top of page when JavaScript is disabled, to let users know that pages are not operative. The Note, Auto, and Full buttons are also omitted in this case, as another visual (if perhaps inconsistent) clue; Prev, Next, and Index remain for show and layout, but are no-ops sans JavaScript.

Other 2.3 Upgrades

The usual basket of smaller enhancements found its way into 2.3:

Popup rounded corners
Viewer-pages' former info popups now use rounded corners for style, and the new Note popups follow suit. It's what we do in 2022, though images are still square to imitate paper photos and avoid cropping detail. To match, OK buttons within info and Note popup dialogs are now rounded too (as understated above).
Popup opacity config
The background dimness for info and note popups can now be customized per build by setting popupOpacity in the config file or a command argument. This new setting gives the opacity of the page overlay: a higher value makes the background dimmer (darker), and a lower value makes the background brighter (lighter). Strictly speaking, values may range from 0.0 (transparent) to 1.0 (full blackout).

The new config's preset 0.40 (40%) matches prior versions and is a fair compromise, but brighter may be better when notes refer to images (so images can be better seen), and darker may be better for long notes or bright images (so notes get more focus and images don't outshout note text). For a brief demo, see the screenshots starting here.

Simpler gallery builds
Non-trivial gallery builds are much simpler now, with 2.2 config arguments and 2.3 input overrides, instead of the former sed config-file edits and <<-EOF here documents. Most examples' build scripts don't use the new tools yet, but one shows how, and another does. The online training gallery's generate and publish scripts provide another example of the simpler new-style builds.
Simpler thumbs-max-size input
The maximum-size build parameter for thumbnails can now be given as a single integer instead of a tuple of two integers, though only when it is provided in the configs file or its inputThumbMaxSize command-argument equivalent. This value must still be a 2-tuple when input from the console. When given as an integer value X in configs, however, it is automatically treated as a 2-tuple (X, X), with the same value for pixel width and height (i.e., with square bounds). Because this is the normal case, the new single-value config provides a convenient shorthand.
Improved dynamic layout
The dynamic index-page layout option added in 2.1 now does a better job of arranging thumbnails horizontally. In brief, the CSS code generated for the thumbnails table now sizes cells using .5 'em' instead of 1 'ch' per character of the longest label. This is irrelevant when images are wider than labels (or labels are omitted per the next note), but packs columns tighter when labels are wider then images. On larger candy-bar mobiles, the net effect allows some galleries to display more than one column, while also avoiding fixed layout's horizontal scrolls.

For the full story on this change, see the 2.3 update in generateDynamicThumbsLayout() of file thumbspage.py, as well as screenshots starting here. As before, configs can be used to fine-tune cell layout out as desired: see the file and example. This largely removes the "experimental" status of dynamic layout—enough so that the training-gallery demo now comes in a dynamic flavor. Despite its mobile scrolls, though, fixed is still the default, because dynamic may still show a single column on some phones and leave empty right-side space in some windows. Foldable mobiles might render some such tradeoffs moot, but it could be a long wait.

Thumbs-only index pages
Per user request, the filename labels that normally appear under thumbnails can now be omitted on index pages. This mode works for both fixed and dynamic index layouts, and displays just thumbnail images. To sample its effect, see the dynamic and fixed screenshots starting here. Enable this option with new config omitIndexPageLabels, and tweak its cell spacing in dynamic layout with configs dynamicLayoutPaddingH/V per the config file's docs; fixed layout sets spacing automatically. Enabled or not, images are still sorted by filename for sequencing, and filenames are still displayed at the top of viewer pages for reference.

Thumbs-only index pages may be useful for galleries where thumbnail images suffice; filenames aren't descriptive or useful; space is a premium for mobile; or 2.3's image notes make filenames extraneous. Filenames generated by cameras, for example, might be pointless, especially if notes provide photo descriptions. On the other hand, this partly upends the paradigm of presenting a folder of images (thumbspage began as an alternative to browser views of image folders, and later, images themselves); and image notes may be less convenient (notes can say more, but informational filenames may be easier). As usual, your gallery is yours to craft.

Three buglet fixes
Three minor defects are fixed in the latest 2.3, the first two of which relate to the new image-notes feature, and the last of which has been lurking since day one:
  1. All \ characters in .note files are now properly escaped so they appear in viewer pages' Note popups. This cropped up only for notes containing backslash characters (open the popups in this example and demo). With the repair, \ and all other characters special to JavaScript and HTML display verbatim and don't derail pages.
  2. Uncaught exception messages no longer show up in the JavaScript console for viewer pages of note-less galleries. These messages were harmless: they were unseen by normal visitors, and did not impact gallery usage in any way. The undefined-name coding issue they reflected has nevertheless been repaired.
  3. Viewer pages' Index buttons now use the index-page name provided in the INDEX config, instead of hardcoding index.html. This config can vary per build and has been present since thumbspage's origin in 2016, but was never utilized in six years. The hardcoding came to light when the training gallery added a second index page for dynamic layout: without using the config, Index taps in the dynamic variant's viewer pages incorrectly returned to the fixed variant's index. Atypical but true.

Bonus: info popups now use the first fix's code to escape their device/software name too. Special characters were never known to be an issue for info, but arbitrary text can be, well, arbitrary.

TBD: touch pads
Some thought was also given to extending swipe gestures to touch pads (in addition to touch screens), but browser support seems too tenuous today. Perhaps tomorrow.

2.2: Swipes, Configs

thumbspage 2.2, published on December 8, 2021, includes three major new features, plus smaller upgrades. This section provides overviews of its new swipe gestures, command-line config arguments, optional tooltips, and other changes. You can also find a demo of config arguments and galleries of tooltip screenshots in the 2.2 examples folder.

Swipes Gestures for Touch

Version 2.2 adds support for swipe gestures on touch displays. This works in all dozen browsers tested on both smartphones and Windows PCs, except for Internet Explorer. Where supported, swipes originating in the image-display area of viewer pages move to next and previous images (for left and right swipes); open the image-info popup (for down swipes); and open image raw view (for up swipes, where supported per ahead).

Swipe usage is described in more detail earlier in the viewing section. These gestures are alternatives to existing tap actions—specifically, taps on Prev and Next buttons, filename widgets, and images—and the former taps (and their mouse-click equivalents) still work as before on all platforms. These gestures also do not preclude other touch gestures: long presses, pinch/spread zooms, and screen-edge back/forward swipes still work where supported earlier.

Because the direction of left/right gallery movement is somewhat arbitrary (should it reflect Prev/Next toolbar button order or not?), this is changeable in the configs file and its 2.2 arguments (per the next section). Namely: if the new config setting lrSwipesPerButtons is True, left/right swipes move to previous/next images, respectively; if False, left/right swipes move to next/previous images instead. Because the latter is more common and "natural," it is also the default preset.

Fallback: thumbspage's swipes play well with default actions in all browsers tested, and are too useful to relegate to optional feature. If they ever prove to conflict with other gestures important to your use cases, however, you can disable viewer-page touch gestures completely by simply commenting out the JavaScript template code that registers touch handlers; search for "DOMContentLoaded" in the template.

To sample swipes live, use a touch-screen device to open any of the demos listed here.

Update: thumbspage 2.3 changes up-swipes to open image notes instead of raw views, when its new Note feature is enabled. This up-swipe parallels down-swipes for info popups. Unlike raw views, this also works on all browsers, because it does not require a page switch. Hence, the convolution of up-swipes—and the following notebox—go away completely in 2.3 when notes are enabled. When notes are not used, however, up-swipe is still raw view as it was before, and comes with all the same barbs. See the 2.3 release note for more details.

Caveat: Up-Swipe Limitations

This note reflects the most-recent versions of browsers in late 2021, including Chrome 96 and Firefox 94. Due to browser glitches, thumbspage's up-swipe to raw views is currently enabled only for Firefox on all platforms, all browsers on iOS, and Samsung Browser on Android. Other touch-device browsers, including Chrome and its Opera and Edge derivatives, don't support this gesture's action, and respond to the gesture with a popup message to let the user know that the swipe was recognized.

The glitch: in Chrome and its ilk, switching to the raw image's URL in touch events frequently fails to push the calling page onto the history stack, despite using code identical to that which works well for image taps. The net result is that a later Back does not return to the viewer page, which is both confusing and frustrating. This message from Samsung Browser seems germane, though this browser allows Back to return to viewer pages, and users are not returning to a page they did not visit. This is clearly a misclassification; enabling popups and redirects in Chrome does not fix this bug, and would be far too much to ask of users if it did.

The scope: this Back-after-swipe glitch occurs in Chrome and browsers that share its code base (Edge and Opera) on Android and Windows. It does not occur in Firefox on either platform, the Samsung browser on Android, or any browsers on iOS (which all share the same code base per Apple edict). Internet Explorer and other platforms are moot because they don't support thumbspage touch events (IE implements a different pointer-event API, and has been rendered nearly unusable on Windows as of late 2021).

The work-around: rather than penalizing all browsers for a Chrome issue, up-swipe has been coded to work on browsers known to support its action today, but may have to be revised if Chrome's bug is ever repaired. In the interim, if a fix appears in Chrome before thumbspage can be rereleased for it, you can set upSwipeOnAllBrowsers in the configs file (or its arguments, up next) to enable up-swipe for all browsers. Setting this to True allows you to both test for a fix, and activate support in galleries.

For now, raw views are still available on all browsers via image taps, which work flawlessly, and are arguably easier than swiping the same widget anyhow. Sports fans: up-swipe was also tried as an equivalent to Index (but Back again failed to return to the gallery); as well as Auto and Full to avoid a page switch (but Auto was too subtle, and Full didn't work most of the time—and was much too jarring when it did). Fix please, Chrome.

Update: this issue is entirely moot in 2.3 when notes are used: see the update above.

Command-line Config Arguments

Version 2.2 allows any number of config-file settings to be passed in as command-line arguments. When used, these arguments override same-named settings in the config file, and are generally more convenient than config-file edits for customizations that vary per gallery. Config-file arguments are coded in commands used to run thumbspage builds, provide both a setting name and value separated by =, and appear after the folder name if one is used:

python3 thumbspage.py imagefolder? setting=value setting=value...
In this, setting is the name of any variable assigned in the config file, and value is any Python expression whose result is used for the config setting. As a Python expression, the value part should use quotes around strings and escape them as needed (e.g., \' or \"), and any other characters special to your shell should be similarly escaped as required (e.g., \&). Config arguments with invalid names or values that produce exceptions on evaluation cause the gallery build to be aborted, with a message in the console.

In the past, changing settings for a given gallery required either manual edits to change and restore the configs file, or automated but perilous edits in build scripts. Some of this site's gallery build scripts, for example, resorted to sed editor scripts on Unix to change a handful of settings in temporary file copies (here's an intentionally retained example). With arguments, settings that deviate from the norm are much easier and safer to tailor per gallery.

For instance, a gallery which wishes to opt in to 2.1 dynamic index layout and 2.2 tooltips, change the index page's colors to a darker theme, and mod the order of 2.2 left/right touch swipes can now be built with the following sort of command-line arguments instead of config-file edits, from either the console or build scripts:

# single line
...thumbspage$ python3 thumbspage.py gallery/ useDynamicIndexLayout=True useToolTips=True thumbsBgColor=\"black\" thumbsFgColor=\"#ffffff\" thumbsBorderColor=\'white\' lrSwipesPerButtons=True

# multiline
...thumbspage$ python3 thumbspage.py gallery/ \
       useDynamicIndexLayout=True \
       useToolTips=True \
       thumbsBgColor=\"black\" \
       thumbsFgColor=\"#ffffff\" \
       thumbsBorderColor=\'white\' \

If the images-folder path (e.g., gallery/ here) is omitted, it will be requested in the console as usual. Any config-file setting can be overridden this way, and any setting not listed in the command still uses its value in the file as before. This is especially handy to enable dynamic layout, which is still not a default in 2.2 despite its growing usage (but there's always the next release).

Subtleties: command-line configs are applied after settings in the configs file have been imported. This works well, but may lead to unexpected behavior if the configs file assigns one setting name to another: if A=B appears in the file and B=other appears as an argument, A will still reflect B's prior file value, not its other argument value. If this arises, simply reset A as an argument to the same value as argument B. Also note that setting values cannot name other settings when coded as arguments; don't use variables in argument values.

Nit: with command-line configs, there are now three ways to tailor generated galleries—configs files, configs arguments, and console inputs. This is largely an artifact of this program's evolution. Arguments are simply selective overrides for the file's complete settings. Console inputs are disjoint from the others, and seem redundant with the new arguments; while they could be made file/argument settings to simplify this story, this would be a backward-incompatible change whose costs are well over budget.

For a complete demo of config arguments in action, see the Bash script here.

Update: thumbspage 2.3 added new config settings that can be used to override console inputs. When provided, in the config file or command-line arguments, input values are taken from the settings, and no input is requested at the console's stdin. This leverages 2.2's config arguments, and resolves the inconsistency nit noted above. For more details, see the 2.3 release note and its command examples.

Optional Tooltips

Version 2.2 adds optional tooltip popups. When enabled, the tips appear on mouse hovers over index-page thumbnails, as well as viewer-page image, filename, and Auto and Full buttons. These use simple title attributes with short text (e.g., "View image" and "View info"), and do not appear on tested mobiles even with a stylus or mouse.

Because they might also be distracting, and pointless (if not annoying) after initial usage, tooltips can be turned on or off at build time via a new useToolTips setting in the configs file and its equivalent arguments (e.g., useToolTips=True). The default preset is False for off (disabled), but this is nearly too grey to call.

Musing: HTML5 localStorage might be used to display tooltips only on first visits to a gallery, by checking a visits counter, and setting titles in JavaScript instead of HTML. This was rejected because browser storage can be disabled or deleted by users, may record differing values across browsers and devices, and has quirks in some browsers that qualify as nonstarters.

For a first-hand look at tooltips, see both the screenshots and live tips in the gallery here.

Update: thumbspage 2.3 makes tooltips enabled by default, because the viewer-page toolbar is busier with the new Note; adds tooltips to the Prev, Next, and Index buttons for consistency; and drops HTML hrefs on all viewer toolbar buttons to avoid URL popups, which were redundant and obtrusive. See the 2.3 release note for more info.

Etcetera: OK, UI, Local Views

In addition to swipe gestures, config arguments, and tooltips, 2.2 adds the following enhancements:

Larger info "OK"
2.2 makes the image-info popup's "OK" button larger primarily on iOS, where its former default was almost too small to tap. This button is slightly larger elsewhere too, but bigger is generally better in UIs.
HTML alt attributes
2.2 adds alt attributes to HTML image tags for completeness and accessibility, though they are moot in many use cases. In both generated index and viewer pages, these appear alongside title attributes added for the tooltips described earlier.
Thumbs-table background color
2.2 darkens the default background color of index-page thumbs tables, for better contrast. This color changes from its former #f5f5f5 to the new lightgrey. Though potentially impactful, this is just a preset default, and a partial concession to the trend towards dark modes. You can change it arbitrarily with file or argument configs, and a true OLED dark mode matching viewer pages' preset black can be easily had—see the example above. Be sure to change any auto-edits to look for the config file's new color, or use config arguments instead.
Thumbs-table border
2.2 changes the index page's thumbs-table border to both use rounded corners, and appear on all four sides (not just top and bottom), for all index-page layouts. This makes it easier to tell where the table starts and stops, especially when it uses fixed layout and scrolls horizontally. See any example. Don't forget to use a body margin in custom headers if you wish to offset the thumbs table; this is automatic in default headers, per the next note.
Index-page margins
2.2 adds a 12-pixel left and right body (i.e., whole-page) margin to index pages which use a default header. This isn't necessary in viewer pages (which use an explicit layout), and is moot when using custom index headers (which take charge of all such matters). In default index pages, though, this helps set off the prior note's new borders, and accommodates curved screens better than browser defaults. Cosmetic but true.
Thumbnail spacing (dynamic)
2.2 changes the built-in horizontal spacing around thumbnail images in dynamic index-page layout, from 32 to 16 pixels (which mean 16 and 8 pixels on both sides, respectively). This spacing is used only if thumbnails are wider than filename labels (else the labels dominate), and is augmented by the horizontal-padding config dynamicLayoutPaddingH (which is applied regardless of label and thumb widths). The new spacing allows thumbnails with narrow labels to be squeezed closer together.
Thumbnail padding (fixed)
2.2 changes the built-in cell padding in fixed-layout index-page thumbs tables from 3 pixels to 4 (which is doubled for adjacent cells), to further reduce horizontal run-together for wide filename labels and increase whitespace slightly. The difference is so modest that you'd have to be an obsessed web developer to notice.
Taglines now optional
2.2 makes taglines optional in default-footer index pages, via new config switch defaultFooterTagline. These messages—"Gallery built by thumbspage.py" and "Page built by thumbspage.py" since 2.1—appear by default at the end of such pages with a link to this program's website, like this and this. As before, they can also be omitted with a custom but simple FOOTER.html file, but the new config makes it easy to avoid the mild plugs when the default footer is used. Examples start here.
Android local views
2.2 inserts a usage update in this doc regarding local-gallery views on Android. This platform evolves almost too fast to document.

2.1: Thumbs, Layout

thumbspage 2.1, published in final form on August 18, 2021, includes two major new features, plus a handful of smaller upgrades. This section provides overviews of its improved thumbnail images, dynamic thumbnail layout, and other changes.

As usual, you can also view the graphical effects of these changes in the new 2.1 galleries here and here, and explore their code in the files referenced ahead. Also as usual, 2.1 download packages newer than the publishing date above have only minor documentation and other edits which do not alter program behavior; the most recent of these non-functional updates was on August 31, 2021.

Improved and Customizable Thumbnails

2.1's first major new feature is the addition of thumbnail-nail enhancements, both automatic and customizable. Eight new settings in the user-configurations file support arbitrary changes to thumbnail color, contrast, sharpness, and brightness, as well as the quality level used for saves.

Among these, two precoded enhancements are preset to be on by default:

Image save quality: noise
The first preset automatically boosts save quality to avoid image noise that stems from the underlying image library's default JPEG compression. This former thumbnail noise was most noticeable at higher browser zooms, and in specific kinds of images.
Image sharpening: blur
The second preset automatically sharpens all thumbs to reduce image blur inherent in the underlying image library's resampling filter used for resizes. Despite using the best filter, this former thumbnail blurring was noticeable at all zooms, and in all gallery images.

The net effect of these two makes thumbnail images noticeably clearer on thumbspage index pages in all galleries and displays tested, at a trivial cost in extra storage requirements measured in just kilobytes per gallery in all test cases. Moreover, the improvement is visually identical for galleries generated on macOS, Windows, Linux, and Android, using Pillow 7 and 8.

In addition, another precoded thumbnail enhancement provides a black-and-white thumbnails mode, and users may tweak other enhancements' settings arbitrarily for more custom effects (e.g., to lighten thumbnails for darker photos).

For a brief look at the thumbnail presets and other settings in action, see the new 2.1 upgrades gallery. For more details on this release's thumbnail changes, see both the new configuration settings and their ample docs in user_configs.py, as well as the implementation-level details in viewer_thumbs.py. In the unlikely event that the two new preset enhancements won't work for your use case, you can revert to 2.0 thumbnail appearance by simply changing these presets' settings to False in the first of these files.

Dynamic Index-Page Layout (Experimental)

2.1's second major new feature is the addition of a new layout mode for thumbnail index pages, which arranges thumbnail columns dynamically to match page size, and rearranges them on page resizes. With this new mode, galleries can now choose from two layouts for index pages:

Original fixed layout
Prior to 2.1, thumbnail-image links were always arranged on index pages using a table with a fixed number of columns chosen at gallery build time. In this mode, the table grows and shrinks horizontally with the page, and scrolls horizontally where needed on smaller displays, but always renders the same number of columns in all contexts.
New dynamic layout
Beginning in 2.1, thumbnail-image links can instead be arranged on index pages using a more dynamic model. Rather than scrolling horizontally, this new scheme chooses the number of columns to show based upon the page's size, and may show more or fewer columns as the page expands and shrinks, or the device's orientation changes.

Of these, the new dynamic layout works well on desktop displays, where pages can be freely expanded and shrunk to display more or fewer columns, and responds similarly to page resizes on popup and split-screen app windows on mobiles. This can make better use of available space, and avoid some horizontal scrolls. Because it adjusts to match display size, this layout is also arguably more in line with the responsive web-design paradigm.

On more rigid mobile displays, however, the new mode seems subpar: in some contexts, galleries may be displayed with just a single column in portrait mode (and perhaps more in landscape), which eliminates minor horizontal scrolling, but can make for radically more vertical scrolling in non-trivial galleries. The impact of this may vary per phone and content, but is typically glaring.

For example, compared to a fixed four-column table, the dynamic model can require four times more vertical scrolling on mobiles that display a single column. For a 100-image gallery, this may mean 20 pages to scroll through instead of 5, depending on display size. Even assuming one extra horizontal scroll per page of interest, the fixed scheme still saves substantial navigation work—and the user frustration it tends to invoke. Moreover, the new dynamic model:

Because of these tradeoffs, the new dynamic layout is provided as an experimental alternative to the former fixed-column tables, which are still available, recommended, and default in 2.1. To enable the new dynamic layout for your gallery instead, simply change the new useDynamicIndexLayout setting in user_configs.py to True prior to gallery generation.

If you do enable dynamic layout, you can also customize the amount of padding between thumbs by setting either or both of dynamicLayoutPaddingH and dynamicLayoutPaddingV to any CSS size in the configs file. The former is used for horizontal padding (both left and right) and is applied whether thumbs or labels are wider; the latter is used for vertical padding (both top and bottom). These settings provide more control over layout, by expanding or collapsing space. Horizontal padding is also a fallback option if program choices prove unwanted, though layout also depends on the widths of labels and thumbs.

To evaluate the new dynamic-layout mode for your use cases, you can catch it live at its new example gallery, or browse all its screenshots. To dig deeper into the implementation, you can view the source code of a demo page, or study the index-page code generation portions of thumbspage.py.

Related change: see also this doc's section on console inputs; dynamic layout removes the thumbs-per-row prompt, because this is automatically determined from page size when this layout is selected.

Update: dynamic layout is still not the default in version 2.2, but that version makes it easier to enable this option per gallery with config arguments in gallery-build command lines. Simply use a command like the following at a console or in a build script, and skip config-file edits:

python3 thumbspage.py imagefolder useDynamicIndexLayout=True
For more details, see the complete coverage of the new config arguments in 2.2 release notes.

Update: dynamic layout's horizontal spacing scheme was improved in version 2.3. It now packs columns tighter, which allows some galleries to render as more than one column on some mobiles. See the 2.3 release note for details; this mostly removes the "experimental" stigma of dynamic layout, though it's still not the default because it can leave some space empty on the right for some window sizes.

And So On: UI, Builds, and More

Beyond its new thumbnail-image and index-layout features, 2.1 also includes an assortment of smaller upgrades:

Log messages
2.1 displays the image-folder name in its final console message for clarity. A small change to be sure, but this is otherwise nonobvious after many message lines, especially in logs of larger builds (e.g., see the automated build scripts ahead). The folder name displayed is just what was passed in; a full absolute path may be very long, and . and .. are not expanded because doing so can be ambiguous (e.g., a subfolder of . may have the same name as .).
Subfolder links
2.1 allows the space between automatic subfolder links to be customized. This employs a new setting subfolderSpacer in the user-configs file. This string setting can be changed to any CSS length-unit value. Its preset default was also increased from 6 CSS pixels to 7, for easier taps on mobiles. To see the change live, view its 2.0-versus-2.1 screenshot, or run the live demo—ideally on a mobile device, to gauge its improved tapping support.
Default taglines
2.1 shortens its default-footer tagline on index pages to "Gallery built by thumbspage.py" so it's less distracting. It also specializes this to "Page" for imageless folders, per the next note. Either way, these can always be removed altogether with a custom footer.
Empty folders
2.1 avoids generating an empty thumbnails table for folders with no images, but does generate a page with title, subfolders list, and Top button, plus any custom header and footer. This can be used to create a top-level index page with only a subfolder list (and a Top, in case the list is long).

For such imageless folders, 2.1 also drops the "Image" in default-header titles (it has no images); specializes the default-footer tagline to "Page built by thumbspage.py" (it's not a gallery); avoids issuing spurious console queries (no thumbs or viewer pages are created); and tailors the final build output line to say "imageless folder." For a typical use case for imageless-folder pages, see the 2.1 dynamic-layout gallery.

Auto and Full indicators
2.1 changes the text of the Auto button on viewer pages to use underline font whenever a slideshow is in progress. Without this visual indicator, it may be difficult to know the show's state, especially on initial startup, and when returning from another page. Here's how the Auto button now morphs when a slideshow is turned on and off with Auto. The active font deliberately looks like a link, as a reminder that it can be pressed to stop the show. Italics was also tried but abandoned, because it makes other buttons shift slightly but noticeably on Android; subtle but true.

For parity, the Full button similarly changes its font as an indicator that it has invoked fullscreen mode and can be tapped to cancel it, but this isn't as useful as it is for Auto, because Full lasts for just one page, and its activation is obvious. Unlike Auto, Full font changes are also not supported by all browsers, and Full will not change for, and will not be able to cancel, a fullscreen mode invoked by a user outside the page (user-initiated and JavaScript-initiated fullscreens differ). Full does, however, change for cancellations invoked apart from the button (e.g., Escape keys).

Embedded thumbs and rotations
2.1 deletes embedded thumbnail images, if present, in images automatically rotated to be right side up for proper display as in-page elements. Though irrelevant to thumbspage itself, and rare in general, the new deletion avoids potential issues in other tools that use embedded thumbs which are arguably miscoded.

Formerly, some such embedded thumbs could confuse some tools (e.g., file explorers) into displaying tilted thumbs, because they were not rotated along with the main image. Deleting these thumbs is a simple yet reasonable fix, given that rotated images are meant for use in thumbspage galleries; thumbspage makes and stores its own thumbnails separately; other tools will do the right thing without an embedded thumb, because they already must for other images; and the original image along with its embedded thumb is always saved to a backup copy prior to rotation.

For both more details and a demo of the new removal at work, see the new console log. As detailed there, this issue's scope was initially isolated to a single context (photos taken on a Galaxy Note 9 and viewed as thumbnails in macOS Finder post rotation), but was later seen to impact some other file explorers and images shot on other cameras, and may be aggravated by tools that add thumbnails covertly. The reorientation demo was also rebuilt with the 2.1 fix; see its image's before and after scene in macOS Finder.

As a fallback: if you're convinced that this isn't a concern for your images and tools and wish to minimize image changes, you can disable 2.1's thumbnail deletions on rotations by changing the new setting deleteEmbeddedThumbs in the configs file. Either way, you can always restore the original versions of rotated images—including their embedded thumbnails—from their .original backups.

Subjective comment: embedded thumbnails in image files seem a very bad idea; they aren't recorded by all devices, double the workload of both developers and image-processing programs, and are prone to grow badly and arbitrarily out of sync with main images over time. Some tools still naively use them anyhow, thereby propagating a design flaw that makes redundancy a built-in. See also getUpdatedExifData in the code.

GUI-mode repair
2.1 resolves a minor issue with the thumbnail-folder name used by the GUI-mode viewer in viewer_thumbs.py—which you probably shouldn't use anyhow. This viewer is legacy code from its file's past, and isn't very good as photo viewers go. But as it was, the viewer created thumbnails in a subfolder that was apt to appear in thumbspage HTML galleries. To avoid the rare potential, this file now uses the same subfolder name as HTML galleries; more details here.
Download packages
2.1 upgrades its distribution packages in two ways. First, it now always ships thumbspage as a zipped folder, instead of individual files. Unless your unzip tool always creates a folder anyhow, this avoids having to manage multiple files after an unzip.

Second, because its examples folder passed the 200M mark, 2.1 now provides multiple zips for users to choose from. From smallest to largest, here are the new downloads and their sizes per macOS Finder (last updated for the 2.2 release; see the main web page for current sizes):

The first of these contains the complete runnable program, but omits the examples folder for space, and includes a user guide whose example links have all been changed to open online content, courtesy of this script.
Automated builds
And finally, 2.1 fully automates its release, thanks to shell and Python scripts like this, this and this, plus per-example build scripts like this and this. This isn't quite as user facing as other 2.1 changes, but serves as an example of automating gallery builds. See the new build folder for full details. That folder also includes a demo of automatically regenerating and uploading thumbspage online clients when thumbspage's results change; see that file for build tips if you manage a website with galleries, as well as the generate and publish scripts of the online training-gallery demo for more inspiration.

Beyond all this, 2.1 polished its code and docs as usual. Explore the package at large for more details.

RFC: if you have a suggestion regarding thumbspage 2.1's defaults for thumbnail quality, thumbnails layout, or subfolder links, please send feedback by email. The defaults suffice for thumbspage's host site, but your mileage may naturally vary. As a rule, thumbspage strives to avoid making choices for you, and all 2.1 defaults are configurable per gallery and builder by design; as always, tweak as desired.

2.0: Auto, Top, Full

thumbspage 2.0, released in final form on October 5, 2020, adds an automatic slideshow and optional one-page fullscreen on image-viewer pages; an optional floating Top button on index pages; a custom dialog and device line for info popups; improved overflow styling everywhere; and a resolution to an iOS Chrome history bug.

This version also changes the UI significantly (hence the 2.0): index pages grow an optional Top, and viewer pages replace Raw with Auto, sprout an optional Full, modify toolbar layout, and change info-popup appearance and content radically. To sample 2.0's new displays, see either the live demos on its hosting site, or the latest 2.0 screenshots. The latter supersede captures from older releases which have not yet been retaken (alas, this task may be preclusively monumental).

Version 2.0's enhancements were rolled out over four 2020 releases, from June 26 to October 5. The rest of this section drills down on each of 2.0's changes listed in the table below, from earliest to final.

Version 2.0 Changes in Detail

In complete terms, 2.0 adds the following upgrades, with major items colored black for emphasis:

  1. Automatic slideshows for viewer pages
  2. Optional floating Top button for large index pages
  3. Optional one-page fullscreen display for viewer pages
  4. Improved horizontal-overflow styling for border cases
  5. The iOS Chrome history-stacking bug is no more
  6. Replacement-target comment in the head
  7. Show user-friendly messages on console-input errors
  8. Info-popup: use a custom dialog instead of alert()
  9. Info-popup: add Device (or Software) line if present
  10. Info-popup: Taken=>Created if origin date unknown
  11. Info-popup: display dimensions as "Nw x Mh"
  12. Safari work-around: use HTML5 session storage for Auto
  13. Safari punt: Auto may stop (or crash) on Back to gallery
  14. Silence a pointless and confusing Pillow DOS warning
  15. Image auto-rotations are not optional in thumbspage
Automatic slideshows for viewer pages
Version 2.0 adds an Auto button on viewer pages, which toggles an automatic slideshow on and off. When active, the slideshow continually advances to the next image-viewer page after a fixed pause, like automatic Next taps. This allows gallery users to step through images without manual navigation. For an example of the new Auto button, see the screenshot here; to test-drive the new slideshow, press Auto in any viewer page of a live demo.

Though the new slideshow is largely automatic, the delay between image pages can be configured on a per-gallery basis at build time: see the new autoSlideShowDelayMS setting in the configs file. This delay setting is preset to 5 seconds, which seems a reasonable balance of user goals (in 2.1, it briefly changed from 5 seconds to 4, but was later reset to 5 for usability, as explained in the configs file). To keep the interface simple, the delay is not changeable by gallery users, though they can turn slideshows on and off at any time and on any viewer page by tapping Auto.

In viewer-page toolbars, the new Auto button replaces the former Raw button, which grew redundant with the new image taps added in 1.7; tap the image for the former behavior of Raw (and mind any older screenshots that still display it). The new Auto button starts and stops the show's progression on demand, and image slideshows are paused when a gallery is exited; they may be resumed on both returns with a browser Back and new selections from the index page, and Next and Prev may be used to skip images.

A slideshow's scope spans all viewer pages visited in a browser tab, because it is based upon the tab's session-state storage. Technically (or at least conceptually), Next and Prev, like any page exit, cancel a scheduled timer event automatically, but the new page schedules a new timer event when loaded; the net effect is to continue the show from the new page. Slideshows also generally run in backgrounded tabs, but this is prone to vary per browser. This is all subject to the peculiarities of browser back-forward caches (and may be partially broken on Safari), but largely works well on all the many browsers tested.

For more slideshow usage details, read the earlier viewing coverage. For additional implementation details, see the initial proposal ahead, or browse the viewer-page template's code. And for concise demos of the sort of code used for cross-page state and slideshow timers, see and run the pages in the example folders here and here.

Update: version 2.1 later enhanced slideshows by changing the Auto button to underlined font as an indicator whenever a slideshow is on. This was a minor but crucial missing feature of the implementation, because the toggle's state was otherwise unclear, especially when first starting a slideshow, or returning to it from another page. See 2.1's release note for more info.

Constraint: the new Auto slideshow requires JavaScript. If JavaScript is disabled in the browser, the Auto button is still displayed but has no effect, and users will be shown the no-JavaScript warning which also apples to dynamic image scaling and more. Given that thumbspage galleries now require JavaScript for info popups, image scaling, Auto slideshows, Full one-page fullscreen, and the next section's floating Top, users can be reasonably expected to enable JavaScript for a more rewarding UI experience. See also the viewing note for another take on this requirement.

Optional floating Top button for large index pages
Version 2.0 adds an optional but default floating Top button in the bottom right of index pages, which jumps immediately to the top of the page. It's available and automatically created in all index pages, whether they use default or custom headers. Viewer pages don't require a Top, because they are full-window displays with no vertical scrolls. To sample the new Top button, see the screenshots starting here, or scroll down on the live demo page here.

The new Top button is intended for larger indexes with useful top-of-page content. It won't appear in small indexes with little or no vertical scrolling, and is generally unrecommended clutter for indexes that have nothing worth scrolling to at the top of the page. It's enabled by default nonetheless, because some pages do have useful top content, large indexes require substantial scrolling on mobiles, and users may wish to start the new automatic slideshow at the first image in the gallery (see the prior section).

See the configs file for settings that customize the new Top button. In short, gallery builders can:

In addition: galleries that use a custom FOOTER.html file may need to add space below a final non-fixed content element, to prevent Top from overlaying and hiding it. This is accommodated automatically in default index footers with a style of this sort, to leave blank space after the final paragraph:

<P style="margin-bottom: 80px;">

The effect is captured here. Depending on its content, a custom footer may wish to do similar. Naturally, <br>s and padding-bottom can have the same effect and a surrounding <div> may help, and be sure to also allow for horizontal scrollbars on desktop browsers that display them if your index page needs to care. As generated, Top's bottom-offset setting prevents it from encroaching on lower fixed toolbars, but not end-of-page text; add space as needed to prevent overlays at the bottom, especially on small mobile displays.

Constraint: the new Top button requires JavaScript to be enabled in the browser. If JavaScript is disabled, index pages still work normally and as before 2.0, but do not display a Top even if one is generated. No warning is issued in this case, because the index page still functions in full with scrolls (where they are required at all).

Optional one-page fullscreen display for viewer pages
By default, version 2.0 adds a Full button to viewer toolbars, which toggles a JavaScript-initiated fullscreen display mode. This mode comes with substantial tradeoffs: it's limited to a single page, and does nothing on some browsers—including iOS Safari and iOS Chrome. Moreover, while this mode can be useful as a quick blowup/zoom feature, some observers may find it a gimmick that wastes UI space (toolbars now scroll per the next note, but Full may be initially off-screen for large fonts on small devices). Hence, the Full button can be omitted on a per-gallery basis, via build setting showFullscreenButton in file user_configs.py.

Where supported, Full does expand and collapse the viewer page on taps, and its fullscreen may be collapsed by other means on some platforms (e.g., an Escape keypress). When on, fullscreen fills the whole screen, dropping system status and navigation bars, along with all browser bars (even in some contexts where manual options don't). This yields an enlarged image (plus an annoying startup message in some browsers). Crucially, though, the blowup lasts just for one image page: any navigation to a new page, including a Next and an Auto slideshow transition, cancels fullscreen jarringly.

There's no way to work around this, because fullscreen by spec must be requested only from a short-running, user-initiated event handler. It's usable only in response to user gestures, not page loads (read more about its API here). This is presumably to avoid phishing spoofs, but limits options for browser-based GUIs, and a complete redesign of thumbspage galleries to avoid page changes on image navigation is a nonstarter. (In short, a persistent fullscreen would require changing a single page in place, rather than opening new pages; depending on the design, it might also sacrifice per-image viewer-page URLs.)

Given Full's limitations, most users may be better served by browsers that have manual fullscreen options which persist across page changes and span Auto slideshows. See the earlier viewer note for manual tips, and the viewer-template file's code for implementation details. Manual fullscreen doesn't work everywhere, but it generally beats thumbspage's Full where it does. That said, Full may still be useful as a quick zoom, especially on browsers without a manual fullscreen option. Enable or disable as you like; it's your gallery.

Update: version 2.1 later enhanced the Full button to, like Auto, change its text to underlined font whenever fullscreen has been activated by the page's Full. This is for parity with Auto, but isn't quite as useful, because Full lasts just one page, and it's obvious that the mode is active. See 2.1's release note for more details.

Constraint: the new fullscreen display requires JavaScript. If JavaScript is disabled in the browser, the Full button will not be displayed, even if it is enabled in the configs file (its presence is decided by generated page code), and users will see the usual warning, which also applies to Auto buttons, filename-tap info popups, and dynamic image scaling on viewer pages. In fact, JavaScript is nearly required for thumbspage galleries today, and this might someday warrant a redesign that changes a single persistent page's content to support a true fullscreen mode (at the possible expense of per-image viewer-page URLs). This remains TBD, but users today can manually invoke a cross-page fullscreen on many browsers and platforms.

Improved horizontal-overflow styling for border cases
Version 2.0 adds and modifies CSS styles to better address viewport horizontal overflow, by:

Shown in the last screenshots above, the filename at the top of viewer pages was already set up to scroll on overflow too, and required no changes. Also note that the first item above applies to generated default headers only; index pages using custom HEADER.html files are responsible for wrapping any title content manually if needed, with similar techniques.

Though important, the two new stylings are mostly just for unusual border cases having either very large fonts, or very long filenames with no breakable characters, and generally apply only to very small windows or devices. On mobiles, for example, too-long filenames that exceed viewports make the entire page scroll horizontally, and too-big toolbar content can run together.

In typical usage, long filenames in HTML are automatically wrapped as needed at embedded characters like -, and the viewer-page's toolbar content is too short to require a scroll. In unusual cases, though, the new stylings ensure that long unbreakable content won't break viewports, and toolbars won't lose their spacing.

For additional implementation details, see the code in the index-page generator and viewer-page template.

The iOS Chrome history-stacking bug is no more
iOS Chrome had a bug which made it impossible to prevent viewer pages from being added to browser history during gallery navigation. Its initial description, and its thumbspage work-around to always stack history on this browser, were part of 1.6's release notes. By its version 75, Chrome's history behavior was still broken, but had changed: pages were erroneously stacked as visited, but browser Backs retraced navigation paths instead of displaying the same page repeatedly as before.

Because this was no worse that thumbspage's work-around, Version 2.0 initially changed the related config-file setting's default to skip the 1.6 work-around. Happily, as of Chrome 83 in June 2020, the history bug appears to have been fixed in full: thumbspage navigation pages are no longer stacked or retraced, and the initial 2.0 change to skip the temporary work-around suffices to adopt the fixed behavior. Hence, thumbspage history now works the same on iOS Chrome as on all other browsers; this issue is closed; and no further attention is required (unless and until it breaks again).

Replacement-target comment in the head
From the simple-but-useful department—Version 2.0 now generates the following comment in the <head> section of both default-header index pages, and all image-viewer pages, as a target for search-and-replace:
<!-- Plus analytics code, custom styles, etc. (replace me) -->

This might be used by a site-publishing script to insert analytics code or custom fonts, and may serve as a lighter-weight alternative to custom HEADER.html files for index pages, and template-file edits for viewer pages. Automatic search-and-replace may also require programming skills, but can be a simple customization option for sites published with scripts.

Update: in version 2.1, this feature was finally leveraged by this script in the new build folder, to automatically insert analytics code prior to uploads. In hindsight, this may have been a bit late to the party; another manual replacement key also snuck into gallery indexes' custom headers over time.

Show user-friendly messages on console-input errors
A minor usability upgrade: at build time, version 2.0 now displays user-friendly error messages for invalid parameter inputs at the console, instead of showing raw Python exception tracebacks as before. This includes catching break- and EOF-key inputs to cancel a run. The former tracebacks sometimes included assertion text, but might have seemed a bit rough to non-developers. For a demo of the new error trapping and reporting, see this new console log. For the input-handling code, see the generator script.
Info-popup: use a custom dialog instead of alert()
Version 2.0 replaces the info popup's former JavaScript alert() dialog with a custom modal dialog—which is really just a full-page overlay with opacity, plus a display box within it, all shown and hidden on demand. Most of the dialog's implementation code (CSS, HTML, and JavaScript) is at end of the viewer-page template file; the former callback handler for filename taps still formats the message using Python replacements and JavaScript DOM data.

This naturally invalidates some former info screenshots, but 2.0's captures are all current. See especially its info-popup subfolder gallery for captures of the new dialog in action.

So why go to all the trouble of a custom dialog? For one thing, some browser vendors discourage alert() usage, and a few browsers (e.g., Firefox) even treat it as a quasi threat, asking users if they wish to silence it (odd, that, for a tool that's been a standard since the 90s). Much worse, mobile browsers format alert() text badly with wrapping, and iOS 13's Hide Toolbars mode can even botch it altogether, displaying text outside the dialog box.

All told, the new custom dialog offers a number of advantages, some of which work around browser-specific limitations. It:

The new dialog also scrolls its page vertically if needed for mobile landscape, and its use of viewer-page color settings makes for a more consistent appearance. Its only potential downside is that it won't pause Auto slideshows, but this may also be a bonus to some observers.

While the new dialog comes with added complexity, its UI improvements are well worth the cost—and better accommodate some of the following notes' content-expanding changes.

Update: as of version 2.3's May 2022 release, the background, foreground (text), and border colors of the info popup can now be configured to differ from the viewer page at large, and the opacity of the popup's overlay can be customized too. See the overviews here and here; the new color and opacity settings also apply to 2.3's Note popup, which borrows both code and design from info.

Info-popup: add Device (or Software) line if present
Version 2.0 adds another line to the info popup to identify the image's maker if present: either Device, which identifies the camera, scanner, or other hardware component that created the image (e.g., "DSC-T30"); or else Software, which gives the creating program (e.g., "Adobe Photoshop"). Device lines may also have brand appended if useful (e.g., "DSC-T30 (SONY)").

Depending on image content, the new info line may be present or not, and is formatted conditionally as follows:

  1. Device is tried first, and is taken from the Model tag of an image's metadata (part of the tag set collectively called Exif in this document; see the standard); it's normally present in shot photos and scans, but not in screenshots or drawn images.
  2. If device is present, the brand name in the Make tag is appended if it is present, just one-word long, and not redundant with a word already in the device string; else it's judged extraneous and omitted.
  3. If device is not present, the Software tag's value is reported instead when available; it's recorded in some drawn images, but this varies by program.
  4. If neither device nor software is recorded, no extra line is added; this would be pointless UI clutter.

In all cases, the device-or-software string is truncated if it exceeds a fixed length, and characters special in JavaScript strings are replaced with ? (until 2.3's more general escapes). Here are examples of the new popup field for images with device, device and brand, no device but software, and neither type of maker tag. For additional examples, see the info gallery, and images in this live demo.

Along with the other curated info-popup fields already displayed, the new maker line seems primarily of interest to content creators. While additional Exif-tag display is nearly open ended (e.g., GPS data could spawn maps), thumbspage aims to strike a balance between image information and interface simplicity.

Info-popup: Taken=>Created if origin date unknown
2.0 also changes the label in the info popup's date-of-origin line from Taken to Created when the date is unknown. The former didn't quite work for drawn images which are neither taken snapshot nor taken screenshot, and the latter still works for PNGs and dateless screenshots in general. The date-of-origin line is always present, and may now be labeled Taken (for photos, the original); Digitized (for scans, since 1.7); or Created (for media of unknown origin date, in 2.0), according to the data recorded by image-creation tools.

Here are examples of the three labels in action for photo, scan, and drawn images. 2.0 also considered omitting the date-of-origin line altogether when this date is unknown (similar to the new conditional Device/Software line of the prior note), but opted to retain it because the filesystem-based Modified line seems otherwise confusing: it might reflect origin or edit, but neither is implied.

Also note that some filesystems record a creation date explicitly (along with modification date), but it's generally unusable for thumbspage's cross-device info displays. Its support varies widely per filesystem (and not just platform), and even where present may not reflect actual creation date after copies and other changes. When in doubt, "unknown" is better than inaccurate. For more details, see Python's os.path.getctime() and the usual web searches.

Info-popup: display dimensions as "Nw x Mh"
For clarity, 2.0 also changes the info popup's image- and display-dimensions formatting, to label width and height with suffix letters w and h, respectively. For example, the popup's new content for a scan looks like this, with dimension lines bold here:
Digitized: 2013-04-14 @15:15:55
Modified: 2020-03-05 @15:46:57
File size: 482,451 bytes
Image size: 2,944w x 2,088h
Display size: 985w x 699h
Device: CanoScan 8800F (Canon)

Trivial, perhaps, and English biased, certainly, but without the suffixes, it can be way too close to call in images that are nearly square.

Safari work-around: use HTML5 session storage for Auto
The new Auto slideshow in 2.0 originally used the window.name JavaScript DOM variable to implement cross-page state. While this clearly smacked of a hack, it was simple, could not be disabled by users, and was supported on every one of the dozens of desktop and mobile browsers tested. Unfortunately, this is now known to fail on Safari, only, when viewing galleries offline on the local file system: the slideshow stops after a single image flip, because state is not retained across pages. This likely pertains to desktop Safari on macOS only, and was seen on its version 13 in particular; mobile Safari on iOS has no clear notion of local views (and later evidence seems to exonerate mobile in full).

This issue wasn't detected in earlier testing, because slideshows work correctly on Safari when viewing online galleries uploaded to remote servers. In local-file mode, though, Safari apparently disables window.name or reserves it for its own internal purposes—and breaks any client code that wishes to make use of it in the process. This may be yet another example of the opinion-based rudeness which has grown sadly common in the software field today, but that's a topic for another venue.

To make slideshows work on Safari too, thumbspage now uses HTML5 session storage in all browsers to implement the cross-page state required for the Auto toggle. As a fallback, it still uses the former window.name scheme when session storage is unavailable or disabled; older IEs don't support it, and some browsers allow users to manually disable it. Here are the highlights of the new JavaScript template code; see its file's source for the full, commented version (and yes, this doc would rather show Python code, but vendors of web browsers—and mobile devices—have rudely dictated otherwise):

var showDelayMS = %(SLIDESHOWDELAY)d;
var toggleKey = 'thumbspageAuto';
var toggleOn = 'show-timer-on', toggleOff = 'show-timer-off';

function hasSessionStore() {
    try {
        sessionStorage.setItem('testkey', 'testval');
        return (sessionStorage.getItem('testkey') == 'testval');
    catch (err) {
        return false;

function autoClick() {
    if (hasSessionStore()) {
        if (sessionStorage.getItem(toggleKey) == toggleOn) {
            sessionStorage.setItem(toggleKey, toggleOff);
        else {
            sessionStorage.setItem(toggleKey, toggleOn);
            showTimerID = setTimeout(function() {navClick('%(NEXTPAGE)s');}, showDelayMS);
    else {
        if (window.name == toggleOn) {
            window.name = toggleOff;
        else if (window.name == toggleOff || window.name == '') {
            window.name = toggleOn;
            showTimerID = setTimeout(function() {navClick('%(NEXTPAGE)s');}, showDelayMS);

if (hasSessionStore()) {   // on page load
    rescheduleAuto = (sessionStorage.getItem(toggleKey) == toggleOn);
else {
    rescheduleAuto = (window.name == toggleOn);
if (rescheduleAuto) {
    showTimerID = setTimeout(function() {navClick('%(NEXTPAGE)s');}, showDelayMS);

With this change, Auto slideshows progress as expected on Safari and all others. Session storage, available via both globals and window. properties, works the same as window.name: it's unique per tab, applies to all pages opened in a tab, and is removed on tab or browser closure. It differs between http and https accesses, but this is irrelevant for the relative URLs of Auto slideshows, and sites can rewrite the former to the latter automatically. For more background details, see the off-site coverage here and here.

The lesson here may be that something which feels like a hack probably is one—and browser vendors may use it as such even if you don't. More fundamentally, this is a reminder that web development today requires supporting multiple, incompatible, constantly morphing, and opinion-driven implementations of what is supposed to be a reliable standard. That's not engineering, and it's about as far from developer friendly as it could be; fix, please!

Safari punt: Auto may stop (or crash) on Back to gallery
But wait, the desktop Safari Auto story gets more exciting still. Using HTML5 session storage as described in the preceding note fixes Auto slideshows to work on Safari in most contexts: as on all other browsers, they start and stop normally on Auto taps, and continue as expected on Prev/Next, as well as an index-page thumbnail tap after Index or browser Back. Even with the fix, however, slideshows on Safari, only, in some contexts stop after returning to a viewer page with a browser Back; on rare and seemingly random cases, this may even crash the page—and possibly browser—altogether.

In testing so far (using desktop Safari 12 and 13 on macOS Sierra and Catalina), these stops and crashes were seen to occur only for the following protocol-switching navigation sequence (spoiler: per the epilogue ahead, Safari Auto stops may also happen on domain switches in all-remote navigations, and this also seems limited to desktop Safari):

  1. Run an Auto slideshow in an offline local-file gallery (protocol file://)
  2. Leave to any online remote page (protocol https://)
  3. Return to the local-file gallery with a browser Back (protocol file://)

Safari in this context wrongly clears the Auto toggle in HTML5 session storage to JavaScript's falsy null, thereby turning the slideshow off. Most of the time, simply tapping Auto suffices to restart the show. Occasionally, though, and with no discernable cause, Safari botches the gallery's viewer page completely in this event, displays the following notorious error in a popup dialog, and may need to be restarted in full:

"The operation couldn't be completed. Operation not permitted" (NSPOSIXErrorDomain:1)

Very oddly, none of this appears to happen when Safari's JavaScript console is open, which suggests a deep structural bug in the browser. Moreover, none of this occurs in any other tested browser—the Back stops and crashes were observed only on Safari. Unfortunately, it's unknown if this is limited to desktop Safari, because iOS's harsh access constraints discourage or preclude local-file galleries on mobile altogether (but watch for later clues in the epilogue).

In the possibly related department, it's worth noting that, both with and without the change to use session storage, Safari also produces an uncatchable exception on Auto image switch, which leaves the following suspicious error message in the JavaScript console:

Not allowed to load local resource: file:///favicon.ico

This happens only for local-file views just like the initial Auto-slideshow failures, but there appears to be no cause and effect relationship between the two: the exception also occurs on Next and Prev taps, and isn't remedied by disabling local-file restrictions in the Develop menu or pasting a valid favicon into the folder.

Just as strangely, a Back in Safari, only, does not run (or properly run) resize handlers in remote galleries: if the window is resized while away, the gallery doesn't catch up until the next page in the show or a forced reload. By contrast, a Safari Back does resize local-file galleries, but also kills their shows by clearing storage (and sometimes crashing). No other tested browser has these issues.

thumbspage tried multiple work-arounds to address the Safari failures—including moving timer rescheduling from top-level code to pageshow event handler; forcibly cancelling timers on page unloads; and forcibly reloading the page when reshown. Some of these were meant to address the theory (really, wild guess) that failures stemmed from the browser's back-forward cache. For example, the first of these used top-level JavaScript code of this form:

function autoContinue(event) {
    // former top-level reschedule code of prior note

try {
    trace('run timer-reschedule code deferred');
    window.addEventListener('pageshow', autoContinue);
catch (err) {
    trace('run timer-reschedule code immediately');
    autoContinue(null);    // run now in older browsers (or: window.onpageshow)

None of these attempts helped as coded. Whether overzealous security constraints, cache optimization schemes gone bad, or outright bugs, something is clearly amiss in Safari local-file views that use session storage and timers.

As a more radical alternative, HTML5 localStorage, unlike sessionStorage, might not be erroneously cleared by Safari on Back, but this may not fix the crashes, and is too broad and persistent to be used in any event: a site's slideshow toggle would then be machine global, enduring to apply to later shows in ways users seem unlikely to expect—or appreciate. Downgrading user experience this way for every browser is not a valid fix for the foibles of one.

The upside here is that slideshows do work well in all other browsers, and work well in Safari most of the time too, after moving to session storage. They're currently known to fail only on switching from and to local galleries in specific Safaris; this is a rare—and even unlikely—use case. Nevertheless, given that this Safari glitch has all the hallmarks of a browser-vendor bug, and has stubbornly defied all work-around heroics to date, it will have to remain an out-of-scope caveat for thumbspage 2.0.

If this Safari quirk crops up in your thumbspage adventures, your best recourses are to tap Auto again to restart the show when possible; use an alternative browser that's less broken; or lobby Apple to fix its junk.

Epilogue: after the above was written, further usage revealed that a Back in Safari sometimes stops Auto slideshows for all-remote (i.e., online) navigation too, if users leave to another domain (i.e., site) and return to the slideshow page. That is, Safari's Back glitch may also be triggered by a domain switch. Just as importantly, all-remote stops appear to happen only in the desktop Safari browser—not in mobile Safari on iOS 13, and not in a dozen other browsers tested among Windows, macOS, Linux, and Android.

In more detail, Safari, only, is now also known to stop an Auto slideshow running in an https:// page, after navigating to another https:// page at a different domain, and returning to the https:// slideshow page with Back. This does not happen for all such remote switches, however. Curiously—and perhaps entertainingly—a slideshow running at https://learning-python.com rarely stops when switching to and from https://apple.com, but reliably does when the navigation target is https://google.com.

HTML5 session storage should endure for all like-kind pages visited in a browser tab (or window). It's specific to page protocol and domain by definition (see here, here, and here), so it's expected to start fresh when navigating from a file:// page to https://, or to a new site in https://. But a prior page's session storage should also be restored and/or intact when a Back returns in both of these contexts, and neither a protocol- nor domain-switching Back should ever crash the browser. Only Safari bears these warts.

There's certainly more to this story, but forensics sans code is guesswork, and we'll have to leave this bug tale here. Whatever the underlying cause, this is clearly an issue for Apple to resolve; until it does, the work-around for thumbspage users remains an Auto-press restart, or an alternative-browser install. Today's desktop Safari seems far too prone to toss its cookies (or at least its session storage...).

Silence a pointless and confusing Pillow DOS warning
thumbspage 2.0 was patched and rereleased in September 2020 to silence a bogus DecompressionBombWarning message now issued senselessly by the underlying Pillow library for all large images. Because the fix does not in any way alter the galleries which thumbspage builds, none need be regenerated; this mutes one build-time message only.

Specifically, when building galleries with images larger than 89MP, the Pillow library by default prints a single DOS (denial of service) warning message in program output that looks like this (with line-breaks added here for marginal readability):

DecompressionBombWarning: Image size (108000000 pixels) exceeds limit of 89478485 pixels, 
could be decompression bomb DOS attack.

This baseless warning is completely harmless, and does not impact thumbspage results; large images work fine in thumbspage galleries whether this message appears or not. But it's also stupidly excessive, and needlessly confuses users of this and many other Pillow-based programs. The message's over-strong language may even scare some users over a threat that doesn't exist.

The warning was first seen for valid 108MP images shot on a Galaxy Note20 Ultra smartphone in 2020, and will crop up for all the increasingly common large images created by newer devices and tools. While the fix to silence the spurious warning may be trivial for program developers, program users have no recourse, and are left wondering if programs are buggy—or worse!

To see the fix's code for yourself, search for Sep-2020 in the source. Though simple, a "fix" is often far easier than a release. At thumbspage's host site, multiple programs were impacted—including thumbspage, tagpix, shrinkpix, and PyPhoto—and each required time-consuming retesting, repackaging, and redistribution. This warning might be useful in some contexts, but it clearly should have required an enable, not a disable. Unfortunately, opt out is a regular by-product of opinion on overdrive.

Lesson: open-source agendas have consequences for others, and "batteries included" development entails substantial trade-offs. While this program could not easily exist without libraries like Pillow, it's also woefully dependent on them—even when they serve as platforms for personal preferences and subjective changes that stomp on the work of others.

So don't be rude out there.

Postscript: though scantly documented, it turns out that Pillow later turned the warning described here into a full error for images larger than twice the warning's size limit. Though unlikely, this error takes the form of an exception that will cause client programs to fail or terminate. Despite this, its only mention seems to be in an obscure release note; whose details contradict an earlier obscure release note; and require studying Pillow's source code for full fidelity.

To avoid large-image Pillow errors, thumbspage's warning-silencing code has been updated to use a new and broader fix that sets Image.MAX_IMAGE_PIXELS to None—which will, of course, suffice only until Pillow tightens the screws again. Large images are not all attacks, and their creators are hardly ever criminals; unless it really means to anger programmers and insult users, Pillow should really think about making this check both opt in and better documented.

Image auto-rotations are not optional in thumbspage
Short story: version 2.0 explored the idea of dropping rotations (a.k.a. reorientations) of tilted images in thumbspage, by propagating sources' Exif orientation tags to their thumbnails and relying on browsers to rotate. This was rejected because browsers still don't support rotations universally in fall 2020. Browsers widely straighten images displayed alone, but not images displayed as in-page elements—like those in thumbspage index and viewer pages. To be inclusive of all users, thumbspage must rotate images itself, because some browsers still don't, and even some that do today did not rotate in versions released just a year or two ago. This note discusses the alternative proposal and its later rejection, as developer-oriented information only; no changes were made, but the story is typical of browser-dependent UI development.

The Proposal

Summary: although thumbspage image rotations work well and as designed, recent findings suggest that it may be possible to implement thumbspage without rotations altogether, by propagating tags from sources to thumbnails. This hasn't yet been fully verified and no thumbspage changes have been implemented—mostly because programs that work don't generally need to be fixed—but this section provides background on non-rotation alternatives.

Details: to get started, we first need to understand the current rotation policy. Given a tilted source image coded with a non-"normal" Exif orientation tag (of the sort commonly had from smartphones held vertically), thumbspage today follows an evolved procedure to reorient images for in-page display that works like this:

  1. Rotate the source in memory to be right-side up
  2. Back up the source's file to a .original copy
  3. Save the rotated source to its file, with updated orientation, width, and height Exif tags
  4. Make and save a thumbnail from the rotated source

The first three of these steps can be turned off on a per-build-run basis by a user configuration; if so disabled, thumbnails aren't rotated either, just because they're built from unrotated sources.

This scheme arose in phases over multiple versions and releases. thumbspage 1.5 displayed images too naively to count; 1.6 added auto-rotation of tilted sources, and their thumbnails by proxy; and 1.7 added Exif orientation-tag update and propagation for rotated source images (thumbs are simply built from already-straightened sources). The combination of these yields the procedure above, which is harmless for builders and viewers, and ensures that both sources and thumbs display right-side up in all contexts, regardless of their original orientation, and despite the vagaries of web-browser support.

Like much in computing, though, there may be alternative ways to do this. Per later research, it now appears that thumbspage may be able to skip rotations for both source images and their thumbnails altogether, as long as sources' orientation tags are propagated to their thumbnails. A non-rotation option is too involved to cover in full here, and is outside the scope of version 2.0. But the facts behind this alternative merit a few words.

In short, the JavaScript DOM seems to account for image orientation automatically in both its image properties and display. Specifically, the standard's doc here says this on the subject:

The IDL attributes naturalWidth and naturalHeight must return the 
density-corrected intrinsic width and height of the image, in CSS pixels, 
if the image has intrinsic dimensions and is available, or else 0.
Since the intrinsic dimensions of an image take into account any orientation
specified in its metadata, naturalWidth and naturalHeight reflect the dimensions
after applying any rotation needed to correctly orient the image, regardless 
of the value of the 'image-orientation' property.

In other words, the DOM's "natural" sizes in JavaScript are already corrected for right-side-up display. The doc doesn't explicitly state that images themselves will be displayed this way when rendered as in-page elements, but this seems the case for a handful of major browsers in recent tests so far.

Because thumbspage has used the DOM's natural width and height in its dynamic image scaling since 1.6, it sizes the image for display in a viewer page with orientation already "baked in." By contrast, version 1.5 used the Pillow library's build-time width and height, which are not corrected for orientation the way that the DOM properties are; the result is an unscaled image auto-rotated by the same browsers, but stretched into pre-rotation dimensions.

Given the DOM's definition—and assuming every browser of interest implements an arguably implicit reorientation for in-page display—thumbspage's own reorientation of the source image is not required. Reorientation of thumbnails may similarly be unnecessary, but only as long as the source's orientation tag is propagated unchanged to the thumb to force the browser's adjustment. In sum, the alternative non-rotating procedure would:

  1. Make a thumbnail from the source in memory
  2. Copy the source's Exif orientation tag to the thumbnail
  3. Save the thumbnail to a file
  4. And hope that every browser on the planet does the right thing for in-page display of unstraightened images, both source and thumb

This seems simpler, and may be, but it still must propagate updated tags using the piexif library (and fix tags known to make that library fail); requires the image-info popup to get dimensions from the JavaScript DOM instead of build-time Pillow (else they may appear swapped); and adds a browser-support dependency that the current scheme evades (and these are almost always best evaded). On the other hand, the source image would remain unchanged.

The required tag propagation of step 2 in the alternative scheme wasn't considered in 1.6 because it wasn't implemented until thumbspage 1.7. Prior to that, thumbnails made from unrotated sources were askew just because they had no orientation tag (and rotated source images were askew if their tags were copied but not updated). Rotating the source solved the issue in 1.6, but may now seem overkill.

All of which sounds simpler in hindsight, but thumbspage's scheme arose in piecemeal fashion over years, and cannot easily be modified today. While it's possible to disable thumbspage's auto-rotations process by setting autoRotateImages to False in user_configs.py, this leaves thumbs tilted: because they're currently built from source images without copying the source's orientation tag, they will display askew. Hence, either the source must be rotated first (as done currently), or code must be changed to skip rotations and propagate source tags to thumbs. And any change must also be predicated on universal browser support for reorientations.

For now, thumbspage's reorientation scheme works as intended, has been used successfully for years, and incurs no penalties apart from the minor overhead of .original backups. While rotations might be rendered superfluous with redesign and recoding, it's difficult to justify fixing a program with such a positive marketing story. In its role as example for learners, however, thumbspage follows a full-disclosure policy—even when that means pointing out its own rooms for possible improvement.

The Rejection

Stop the presses: the non-rotating alternative proposed in the preceding section proved to be unusable after testing revealed that browser support for reorientation of images displayed as in-page elements is still coming online, and nowhere near the universal level required even on the latest platforms. Hence, in the name of inclusiveness, thumbspage will continue to rotate source and thumbnail images itself, because some browsers don't.

Details: although Exif orientation support has appeared in some browsers by fall 2020, a more complete analysis reveals that this is a very recent feature that has been appearing slowly. Along the way, its course included a CSS property that aimed to force the issue, but had weak support and was deprecated in favor of automatic adjustment. While automatic reorientation seems on track to becoming the norm in years ahead, it won't be present in versions of some browsers released just one or two years ago, and may never be adopted by others.

As a sample of where this support lies today, the following table summarizes auto-rotation findings for desktop and mobile browsers, as compiled empirically by thumbspage's testing department in October 2020; a "No" in the leftmost column means the browser doesn't adjust for orientation when displaying images as in-page elements:

Rotates Device OS Browser Version Released
No Desktop macOS 10.15 Firefox 70 Oct-2019
No Desktop macOS 10.15 Safari 13 Sep-2019
Yes Desktop macOS 10.15 Firefox 78 Jul-2020
Yes Desktop macOS 10.15 Chrome 85 Aug-2020
No Desktop Windows 7 Chrome 77 Sep-2019
No Desktop Windows 7 Firefox 56 Sep-2017
No Desktop Windows 7 IE 9 (unknown)
No Desktop Windows 10 IE 11 (unknown)
Yes Desktop Windows 10 Firefox 78 Jun-2020
Yes Desktop Windows 10 Chrome 85 Aug-2020
Yes Desktop Windows 10 Edge 85 2020
No Mobile Android 7 Firefox 65 Jan-2019
Yes Mobile Android 7 Chrome 81 Apr-2020
No Mobile Android 10 Samsung 12 Jun-2020
Yes Mobile Android 10 Chrome 85 Aug-2020
Yes Mobile Android 10 Firefox 81 Oct-2020
Yes Mobile iOS 13 Safari 13 Sep-2019
Yes Mobile iOS 13 Chrome 84 Jul-2019

For a more graphical look at these results, open the examples' thumbspage-screenshots gallery. As you can see, auto-rotation has come to some browsers in just the last year, and others still don't support it at all in fall 2020. On both desktop and mobile devices, current and recent versions of widely used web browsers still show orientation-coded images askew.

Which nicely captures a dilemma constantly facing engineers who work in a field as dynamic as software. Dropping its own reorientation might make sense if thumbspage could restrict its scope to just the latest-and-greatest browsers and versions. As a program designed to build galleries inclusive of all viewers, though, this is not an option. Even for browsers that have added the required support recently, versions just a few years old will still be common for years to come (despite the best efforts of their vendors).

Because we don't live in a world that restarts afresh each release cycle, thumbspage cannot be changed to rely on browsers to reorient tilted images any time soon. While this might trim some program complexity, it wouldn't work for many thumbspage-gallery viewers today, and requiring browser updates or replacements just to view thumbspage galleries would both be too extreme, and almost certainly qualify as rude (see the prior note).

For hard-core readers: the following Python session demos one way to do the source-to-thumb tag propagation which was tested but ruled out; Pillow also has some support for reading tags and processing them as a bytes blob (see reorientImage in viewer_thumbs.py), but little to match piexif when it comes to updating tags:

>>> from PIL import Image
>>> import piexif
>>> it = Image.open('2020-09-17__180904.jpg')        # unreoriented thumb
>>> es = piexif.load('../2020-09-17__180904.jpg')    # source tags (unreoriented)
>>> et = piexif.load('2020-09-17__180904.jpg')       # thumb tags (none yet)
>>> es['0th'][piexif.ImageIFD.Orientation]
>>> et
{'0th': {}, 'Exif': {}, 'GPS': {}, 'Interop': {}, '1st': {}, 'thumbnail': None}
>>> et['0th'][piexif.ImageIFD.Orientation] = es['0th'][piexif.ImageIFD.Orientation]
>>> et['0th'][piexif.ImageIFD.Orientation]
>>> saveexifs = piexif.dump(et)
>>> saveexifs[:20]
>>> it.save('2020-09-17__180904.jpg', exif=saveexifs)

It's also worth noting that Pillow's ImageOps module has a call exif_transpose(image) that straightens images and simply deletes their Exif orientation tags, but this call also discards all other Exif tags if its result is saved directly; per warnings, seems to have even more issues parsing tags than piexif; and wouldn't make logistics any easier here in any event—regardless of how rotation is coded, Exif tags must be propagated to sources for display, and thumbs and sources must be saved to files in reoriented form because both are displayed in thumbspage galleries as in-page elements that aren't automatically righted by many browsers:

>>> from PIL import ImageOps
>>> it = Image.open('../2020-09-17__180904.jpg')     # unreoriented source
>>> ir = ImageOps.exif_transpose(it)
/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.8/lib/python3.8/site-packages/PIL/TiffImagePlugin.py:588: UserWarning: Metadata Warning, tag 282 had too many entries: 2, expected 1
/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.8/lib/python3.8/site-packages/PIL/TiffImagePlugin.py:588: UserWarning: Metadata Warning, tag 283 had too many entries: 2, expected 1
/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.8/lib/python3.8/site-packages/PIL/TiffImagePlugin.py:588: UserWarning: Metadata Warning, tag 34853 had too many entries: 6, expected 1
>>> ir.save('rotated.jpg')                           # simple saves drop Exif tags
>>> piexif.load('rotated.jpg')
{'0th': {}, 'Exif': {}, 'GPS': {}, 'Interop': {}, '1st': {}, 'thumbnail': None}
>>> piexif.load('../2020-09-17__180904.jpg')
{'0th': {256: 4000, 257: 3000, 271: b'samsung', 272: b'SM-N986U1'...   # and a lot more

In the end—and with all the evidence in—thumbspage did the right rotations thing in 2018 and still does in 2020. Its universally portable image reorientation still beats the partial support among browsers today (even if readers 10 years down the pike may not think so).

1.7: Info, Exifs, Etc.

Version 1.7 was initially released in February 2020, and repackaged as point releases until June of the same year. Here are the highlights of the 1.7 changes introduced by each release package:

Most 1.7 changes appear on generated image-viewer pages, and all can be found by searching for [1.7] in the system's code files as usual. For examples of all the visual changes in 1.7, see its screenshots page.

Version 1.7 Changes in Detail

This section provides more detailed reviews of changes introduced across 1.7 releases. Because development of this version spanned half a year, its upgrades are many. For readers in a hurry, the later and longer reviews here come with summaries, and the following index provides fast access to 1.7 changes, from first to last, with major items colored black for emphasis (and time-strapped readers):

  1. Avoid image clipping at large font settings
  2. Avoid button run-together at very large font settings
  3. Open a new info popup dialog on filename click/tap
  4. Open the full image on image click/tap, just like Raw
  5. Note version number and generation date in all pages
  6. Viewer-pages and clean-thumbs default to yes in console prompts
  7. Allow folder name to be passed in as a command-line argument
  8. Skip Unix .* hidden names in subfolders bullet lists
  9. Remove tkinter dependency for building on Android
  10. Drop hover italics/underline effects for toolbar buttons
  11. Improve thumbnail quality for shrunken images and GIFs (Mar)
  12. Retain—and update—Exif tags in rotated JPEG images (Mar)
  13. Index pages: avoid text upscaling in iOS Safari landscape (May)
  14. Info popup: label scans as "Digitized" instead of "Taken" (May)
  15. iOS landscape: use JavaScript image scaling in all browsers (May)
  16. piexif work-around: fix rare failures on some rotated images (Jun)
Avoid image clipping at large font settings
When calculating space available for the image, thumbspage viewer pages formerly used a constant to account for used space. Though rare, this could sometimes lead to clipping of the image's bottom border and even part of the image's lower content, if the user applied a larger-than-usual font setting. This occurred only for very large images (e.g., mobile portrait screenshots) and wasn't possible in all browsers, but could happen on both mobile and desktop devices.

To fix, 1.7 now calculates that actual space used by non-image page elements, instead of using a constant. See the results here, here, and here. As a bonus, this allows viewer pages to use all available space for the image, yielding a larger image display in most contexts. There is no downside to this change, and thumbspage users are encouraged to regenerate their pages with 1.7.

Avoid button run-together at very large font settings
On smaller displays and devices, thumbspage viewer pages formerly scaled up the font size of toolbar buttons for accessibility (to 1.25em in CSS). Though very rare, this could cause the buttons to run together badly on some browsers if the user applied a very large font setting. This was observed on only one of dozens of mobile and desktop browsers tested, and at a font setting large enough to break the design of many a site on the web, but was still subpar.

To fix this for the sole known offending context, and make it less likely to occur in general, 1.7 abandons the prior font scale up for toolbar buttons altogether. See the result here. As a bonus, this allows more space for the image, yielding a larger image display on all mobile browsers tested. The only potential downside to this change is slightly smaller toolbar buttons on mobile devices, but the new button size is more symmetric with the filename's font (see the next note), and users can still scale up text as desired.

Note that both this and the preceding change invalidate some examples screenshots in trivial ways: toolbar buttons are now slightly smaller on mobiles, and the image display is slightly larger in general (e.g., see the befores and afters starting here). Older screenshots will be retaken if and as time allows, but are unlikely to be updated soon; to sample thumbspage's current behavior, be sure to try the examples in the thumbspage package, and the live demos at thumbspage's hosting website.

Update: version 2.0 later resolved viewer-page toolbar button run-together in full by a new CSS min-width setting, which both enabled scrolls for very large fonts in small displays, and reserved space between buttons by limiting the crunch. See the 2.0 note as well as the source-code of the viewer template file for more details.

Open a new info popup dialog on filename click/tap
When JavaScript is enabled, Version 1.7 viewer pages now catch clicks and taps of the filename at the top of the page, and open a simple image-info popup dialog in response. Here's what it looks like on desktop and mobile browsers.

This new dialog gives the image's date/time taken (if any), last modified date/time, file size, original dimensions, and display dimensions. Taken details reflect Exif tags embedded in the image (see the standard); original and display dimensions are via the Pillow library and JavaScript DOM, respectively; and modified and file-size data reflect the image file itself. On devices that support hovering, the cursor also changes to a pointer over the filename to make the new action more obvious.

Note that, apart from display dimensions, the info displayed by the new popup is static: it reflects the image at the time that thumbspage generated the viewer page, not the time that the image is viewed. For accurate info, be sure to rerun thumbspage if images are modified—just as you would if images are added or deleted. Also note that the new dialog is simplistic and filename taps are somewhat subtle, but both pass as usable without overly convoluting the display or its code.

Update: 1.7 later specialized the creation-date label to "Digitized" for scans (see ahead). More strikingly, version 2.0 replaced the info popup's former alert() call with a custom dialog that's a complete solution to alert()'s limitations described in the 2.0 release note. 2.0 also extended the info popup's content to include a maker line that gives device (e.g., camera or scanner) or else software (e.g., drawing program), if either is present, and changed "Taken" to "Created" when date is unknown to accommodate drawn images.

Update: Later still, versions 2.2 and 2.3 further enhanced info popups with touch swipes, customizable colors and opacity, and more; see later releases for more info.

Open the full image on image click/tap, just like Raw
When JavaScript is enabled, version 1.7 viewer pages now make image clicks and taps the same as activating the toolbar's Raw button for convenience, opening the image directly in the underlying browser. This is generally a quick way to view the image at full size and zoom and pan, and is especially handy for the smaller image displays in landscape mode on most mobile devices; here's one normal and tapped. On devices that support hovering, the cursor also changes to a pointer over the image display to make the new action more obvious.

Update: version 2.0 replaced the former Raw button with an Auto for automatic slideshows (and later added a Full for fullscreen). Raw image display is still available via image taps—which made Raw fully redundant anyhow.

Note version number and generation date in all pages
Though not user facing, version 1.7 now records the thumbspage version number and page-generation date/time, in the comments of both the index page and the image-viewer pages it generates. These notes appear after the image table's code in the former, and near the top of the latter, and can be located by searching for <!-- Generated. They may be useful in auditing or revision-tracking roles. Tip: to strip these comments out of files to make results more comparable, see this included utility script.
Viewer-pages and clean-thumbs default to yes in console prompts
The console-input reply for viewer-pages generation now to defaults to y (yes), instead of its former n (no), because viewer pages are now mature enough to broadly recommend over raw browser displays. The default for the clean-thumbs prompt is now also y, because this is the normal and recommended response. These are minor usage enhancements, but invalidate some console logs created under prior versions (two prompts differ trivially); these examples are being updated for the 1.7 release, but please pardon any remaining dust.
Allow folder name to be passed in as a command-line argument
As described earlier, Version 1.7 adds a sole and optional command line argument: the name of the folder to be processed into a gallery. This allows you to use shell auto-completion for long folder names (though this may work better in a console than an IDE).

When provided on the command line, the images-folder name isn't requested interactively, but other parameters still are; if you wish to avoid inputs altogether, use the usual < shell syntax to pipe in a file of precoded replies, one per line, from a text file. To better reflect the new argument, 1.7 also changes the order of inputs, moving file name to be asked first. Like the prior note's change, this invalidates some older session logs (where folder name is asked later); also like the prior note, the difference is negligible, and examples are being updated in the 1.7 package as they are found.

Update: versions 2.2 and 2.3 generalized thumbspage command lines further, with both config-file and console-input overrides coded as setting=value command-line arguments, though the 1.7 folder argument still works as noted here in its unadorned form. See later releases for details.

Skip Unix .* hidden names in subfolders bullet lists
A small but useful mod: folders named with a leading . and thus hidden per Unix convention no longer appear in subfolder bullet lists on index pages. Formerly, folders with leading _s were skipped as gallery private, but hidden folders are now ignored too; use either to omit from bullet lists.
Remove tkinter dependency for building on Android
Though introduced between 1.7 and 1.6, 1.7 incorporates a minor February 2019 change in this module, which avoids all tkinter dependencies except when using the simple and obscure GUI-viewer mode (essentially, all GUI-mode code is now nested under a __main__ test). This change does not impact the content or behavior of the pages that thumbspage generates, which work on any browser as before; but it allows thumbspage itself to be run to create galleries in contexts that support Pillow but not tkinter.

While generally helpful, this upgrade's main impetus was Python Android apps. For instance, thumbspage is now usable on Android devices in both the tkinter-less Termux, as well as the tkinter-aware Pydroid 3, after installing Pillow. Especially when using a keyboard or tablet, this makes running thumbspage on Android a reasonable goal.

For more details on running thumbspage to build galleries on Android devices, see the notebox earlier in this doc.

Drop hover italics/underline effects for toolbar buttons

Summary: thumbspage 1.7 discards its former hover effects on toolbar-button mouseover, because they are supported unevenly and poorly on mobile browsers. URL popups and cursor changes still provide indicators where available (i.e., on desktops, and a renegade mobile or two).

Version 1.7 grudgingly abandons the font effects formerly applied to viewer pages' toolbar buttons on mouseover (a.k.a. cursor hovers). These effects work well as a visual indicator on devices with a mouse (e.g., desktop browsers), but are just plain buggy on devices with touch screens (e.g., mobile browsers).

For example, hover effects commonly get stuck on after a tap on Android mobile browsers, and aren't cleared until the next user event; this is especially poor if the tap does not switch to a next page—like the new filename tap in 1.7 above. Hover effects may also require a double tap to activate the main action on iOS devices (one tap for the hover, one to activate). In thumbspage, hovering was formerly disabled for smaller screens via CSS media queries, but its problems could still crop up in landscape mode on mobile devices. Hover effects may be superfluous for toolbar buttons which also invoke a URL popup; but the filename does not, and neither do some hoverable touch screens.

Unfortunately, the only full remedy for this today is to avoid hover effects altogether on pages that wish to support both desktop and mobile devices—including thumbspage viewer pages as of 1.7. This is an unfair penalty on desktop browsers, where hovers work correctly, and are a common and even expected behavior. But it's also typical of the quality issues that mire the mobile realm, and one of far too many interoperability issues that plague the web domain. Alas, both seem to have been more accumulated than designed to date. For more on hover problems, see the note on this MDN page, and the iOS results for this search.

As a consolation, thumbspage viewer pages still provide some visual cues when a pointing device is used, by changing the cursor to a pointer whenever it covers any widget with a clickable action (though not when the action won't fire because JavaScript is disabled). This works well on all desktop browsers tested, but has no effect on mobile browsers even when a stylus is present—except for Samsung's browser on a stylus-equipped Galaxy smartphone, a device which otherwise inhabits a strange browser purgatory between mouse and touch, and further muddles a hover story that sorely needs a happier ending.

Improve thumbnail quality for shrunken images and GIFs (Mar)

Summary: in thumbspage 1.7, thumbnails of non-transparent GIF images have been much improved, thanks to both a fix initially installed to do the same for thumbnails of shrunken images, and the generalized utility of the underlying Pillow library.

Per the usage note above, the site hosting thumbspage has started globally downscaling image filesize with the shrinkpix program. This makes online images both faster to view, and friendlier to limited-quota users. As a consequence of the conversions, though, thumbnails generated by thumbspage from shrunken images have potential to lose visual quality; in worst cases, the effect is a nearly complete munge.

To fix this, version 1.7 now internally and temporarily converts some images to "RGBA" color mode when creating their thumbnails. This produces thumbnails that look the same and are at least as good as those made from original, unshrunk images by prior versions. As a bonus, using "RGBA" for some unshrunk GIFs renders their thumbnails much better than before; to show how, here are two pages with GIF-image thumbs before and after the change.

For more technical details on this change, see the [1.7] notes in viewer-thumbs.py. This fix is not applied to JPEG images (which yield the same thumb quality when shrunk), or GIFs with transparencies (whose transparent parts would render black). An alternative "RGB" conversion was less constrained, but rendered macOS screenshot shadows fully black, which matched shadows on full-size viewer-page displays only coincidentally when the default black background color was used. These shadows may be best avoided as a rule, but this lesson comes too late for the hundreds of captures on thumbspage's host website.

Update: version 2.1 more broadly improved thumbnails by sharpening images and boosting save quality. The net effect removes both resize blur and compression noise in earlier releases' results. See 2.1's release note.

Retain—and update—Exif tags in rotated JPEG images (Mar)

Summary: as of 1.7, thumbspage propagates Exif metadata tags to auto-rotated images, and updates dimension tags for the new right-side-up orientation using a third-party library included in the package. It's important to preserve metadata in general, but this is also required for proper display and info popups.

Version 1.6 added auto-rotation of original images and their thumbnails in thumbspage galleries. With version 1.7, rotated and saved JPEG images now retain their original Exif tags (see the standard). This grew more important with the introduction of image-info dialogs in 1.7 described above. To see why this matters, click the filename on this page; this rotated image's date taken is now displayed in the info dialog, because this data comes from the Exif tags propagated from original to rotated images by 1.7.

One catch to this process: if Exif tags were propagated directly and unchanged, they would reflect the original image, not the rotated copy. Among the possible consequences, width/height dimension tags wouldn't reflect the new swapped dimensions of the rotation. This isn't crucial, because rotated images are meant for use in thumbspage galleries only, and prior values document originally recorded size (though they may confuse other tools).

The orientation tag, however, cannot be propagated to saved rotations unchanged; if it's not updated to the normal-rotation value, other viewers will incorrectly reorient already-reoriented images, resulting in flipped displays. This happens even in the underlying web browsers that display such images directly in thumbspage's own Raw mode (a.k.a. image tap). Perhaps worse, if the orientation tag isn't adjusted, thumbspage itself will reorient the image and its thumbnail on every new gallery-build run—with erroneous, if comical, results.

To fix this, thumbspage updates both orientation and dimension values in the Exif data while propagating it from original to rotation. This both saves date taken, and rights the Raw apes. To perform these updates, thumbspage now uses the third-party piexif library, and ships this library's code in its download package. The much broader Pillow image-processing library used everywhere else in thumbspage must already be separately installed, but has almost no support for Exif tags, apart from fetching and saving their raw bytes data. By contrast, the pure-Python piexif both parses and composes Exif data, and provides read/write access to individual tags.

All of which is substantial added complexity. Without Exif-tag propagation, though, date-taken would not be displayed for rotated images alone; without Exif-tag updates, rotated images would be flipped by browsers and reoriented on each thumbspage run. The former would probably qualify as a bug, and the latter would be worse.

Also note that Exif propagation is currently applied only to JPEG images. PNGs have some notion of Exifs too, but it's just recently been standardized, was largely ad-hoc in the past, and the priority here is on commonly available photo data that thumbspage galleries and their info popups display. If present at all, PNG tags seem unlikely to be as widely useful as the information slavishly stamped onto JPEG photos by our cameras and smartphones.

Update: see also the June 2020 work-around ahead, applied after piexif was seen to fail on some uncommon Exif tags; updating tags makes thumbspage only as robust as a third-party library.

Update: version 2.0 explored the idea of dropping rotations in thumbspage itself, by propagating sources' Exif orientation tags to their thumbnails and relying on browsers to rotate. This was abandoned because browsers don't support rotations universally; thumbspage must rotate because some browsers don't. See the 2.0 note here.

Update: on a related note, version 2.1 and later now delete embedded thumbnail images, if present, so that their former Exif tags don't confuse some file explorers. See the update.

Index pages: avoid text upscaling in iOS Safari landscape (May)
As of 1.7, thumbspage now emits a -webkit-text-size-adjust style in default thumbnail-index pages, to disable iOS Safari's upscaling (a.k.a. boosting) of some text sizes in landscape orientation. Upscaling is arguably an iOS Safari misfeature: the zoom prevents users from seeing more text in the wider format after rotating to landscape. The style—arguably a hack, but common on the web—is new in index-page default headers only; it was already used in generated image-viewer pages, and added manually by most galleries with custom index headers. It's generally recommended, but you can restore prior behavior by either changing the new noiOSIndexTextBoost setting in the configs file, or using a custom HEADER.html file sans the new hack.
Info popup: label scans as "Digitized" instead of "Taken" (May)

Summary: in popup info dialogs triggered on filename taps, thumbspage 1.7 now labels capture dates for scanned images as "Digitized" instead of "Taken," as in this. This avoids potential confusion, but relies on device manufacturers (and programming libraries) to use Exif tags consistently.

The Exif standard's use of multiple date/time fields leaves roles somewhat vague, and relies on consistent interpretation by device manufacturers. In particular, the two main date/time tags—DateTimeOriginal and DateTimeDigitized—seem prone to interoperability skew. In practice, though, images captured on digital cameras normally have both their original and digitized tags set to capture (i.e., taken) date/time. While comparatively rare, scanned images instead generally have a blank original tag, and record scan date/time in the digitized tag. Exif defines an additional DateTime tag, but it's meant only for recording time changed, and is considered out of scope by thumbspage (and likely redundant with the file's modification time already shown).

In prior 1.7 releases, thumbspage's info popups used the original tag if present, else the digitized tag, and labeled the result "Taken" for either. This logic was borrowed from tagpix, which must select a filename prefix for uniqueness. It makes sense in thumbspage too if "Taken" is generalized to mean any digital origin, but might be mildly confusing for photo scans: the scan date/time doesn't reflect that of the actual scene, and most people are unlikely to manually add an Exif capture-date/time tag to older scanned images (when known at all). Here's the prior release's potentially puzzling display for a scan.

To do better, thumbspage's info screens now display either a "Taken" date/time, for images with an original-tag value; a "Digitized" date/time, for images with only a digitized-tag value; or "Taken: (unknown)" as before if neither tag is set (this is the normal case in thumbspage for PNG screenshots). Here's the new, improved results for a camera photo, a scanned photo, and a screenshot. This should better reflect photo scans in galleries—especially for photos with years in their filenames, like some at this site. This also accommodates screen-size limits in the info popup: displaying all date-related tags might run off screen on small mobiles, and date of origin is usually the main item of interest.

Beyond all this, it's also worth noting that Exif date/times generally have no time-zone information (a new standard does, but it's not widely followed); they reflect the recording device's time, which is presumably that of the capture location. Moreover, metadata can appear in multiple redundant-but-differing formats in digital images, and thumbspage is wholly dependent on the Pillow library to collect it, and devices to supply it. Although results have been good to date, digital image metadata, like much in the computing world, seems to have been as much accumulated as designed. For more on Exif issues, try this.

iOS landscape: use JavaScript image scaling in all browsers (May)

Summary: as of 1.7, thumbspage now also uses JavaScript scaling for all iOS browsers in landscape mode—including Safari. This works well in all four non-Safari iOS browsers tested, and matches their Android behavior. It's also arguably better in Safari on iOS < 13: users must still scroll once, but it's easier to view the bottom of an image than before. Best of all, the new scheme works ideally as of iOS 13 in Safari, if the hide-toolbars option is enabled in its new "aA" menu. As a legacy option, the former 1.5 CSS scaling can still be used for iOS Safari's landscape views where preferred; see the configs file's iOSSafariLandscapeCSS.

Per this guide's pre-1.7 coverage here and here, thumbspage 1.6 reverted to 1.5's CSS-based scrolled scaling for landscape (i.e., vertical) orientation display on iOS devices. This was an intentional compromise, because page sizes were returned inconsistently in this context; no good work-around could be found for usability issues; and iOS's low traffic share at this technically focused website didn't merit additional efforts at the time. iOS's overall share was 3%, and the most popular alternative to Safari on iOS weighed in at just 0.4% (and lower if analytics blockers were factored in; details here). When time is limited, it's tough to justify investing it on outliers, especially when the only hope seems brittle kludges.

In retrospect, this policy may have been too broad. For one thing, not all sites' iOS percentages will be as low as those here. For another, most iOS issues were present only in Safari: only iOS Safari reported viewport sizes poorly, and only iOS Safari cropped landscape pages with mandatory toolbars. While Safari likely accounts for most iOS traffic on the web, 1.6's blanket policy unfairly penalized other iOS browsers whose landscape displays work well. The real clincher here, though, was a new option in iOS 13 which works around Safari's issues in full, and easily justifies a new approach.

To do better, thumbspage 1.7 by default now uses 1.6's JavaScript scaling for landscape views in all browsers on iOS, instead of the falling back on the former CSS-based scaling in this context. This is a clear win for all non-Safari iOS browsers tested; here are the results on a 4" test-device screen for Chrome, Firefox, the latest Edge, and UC Browser. These displays now better match those on Android, which has always scaled well in both orientations.

For iOS Safari, results are improved across the board, but vary by iOS release and user action. The best news is that thumbspage landscape views now work in full for users running iOS 13 and later. As of that version, iOS Safari has gained an option that hides its bottom toolbar altogether, and shrinks its top toolbar substantially. This option lives in the new "aA" menu at the upper left of Safari's window, and is applied to all pages opened in an enabling tab. For more usage details we'll skip here, try a web search; iOS 13 may also hide toolbars automatically when rotated to landscape, but the menu setting makes the effect permanent, and provides additional UI fixes. Specifically, when the new iOS 13 option is enabled:

All that being said, the thing about options is that they're optional. Although the new iOS 13 work-around can indeed solve multiple thumbspage issues in full, it's important to keep in mind that it won't help users who don't know about the new option; choose not to apply the new option; or use devices running iOS 12 and earlier that don't have the new option (yes, it's still possible). That's far short of an all-inclusive fix. Where the iOS 13 option isn't available or enabled, the new JavaScript scaling results in 1.7 are still obscured by toolbars and require a scroll, but they at least allow users to view image top and bottom more easily (the former CSS display revealed image bottom only during a down-scroll).

Browser flux aside, thumbspage's new scaling rules are very simple: it now uses JavaScript image scaling everywhere, with just two exceptions. First, CSS-based scaling is still used as a fallback when JavaScript is disabled. Second, because this change differs from prior releases, and because some users may very well prefer the former results in Safaris not using the iOS 13 work-around, you can reinstate CSS-based landscape displays by setting the iOSSafariLandscapeCSS variable in the configs file. This legacy option works for iOS Safari only, because all other browsers handle JavaScript scaling without issue.

To summarize, thumbspage's complete image-page user story on mobile is now as follows:

At least that's the story until the next browser change. If web browsers are a kind of GUI, then web development is like having to make your code run on dozens of incompatible versions of a GUI toolkit, and on dozens of disparate platforms, all of which morph regularly and frequently and are naturally inclined to view interoperability as an obstacle to control. This has wrought a programming and maintenance nightmare—and ironically so, given the web's original portability ambitions. Please enjoy thumbspage today, but bear in mind that longevity cannot be counted among the assets of web-based systems.

Footnote: to be fair, iOS Safari isn't alone in harboring usability "features" that break websites. Edge for years had a URL-mouseover defect which rendered toolbar buttons unusable at the bottom left of a desktop page; and Chrome's duet adventures on Android regularly threaten to steal a sizable chunk of the display for browser agendas. Edge's overlay was fixed, and Chrome's duet is currently not a default, but both are typical of the sorts of vendor quirks that developers must battle constantly. A decent conspiracy theorist might point out here that vendors have vested interests in driving content to fullscreen web apps which generate store revenue. More likely, these are just artifacts of the opinion-based morph that plagues software at large, and renders web development in particular as much hacking as engineering. Improve me...

piexif work-around: fix rare failures on some rotated images (Jun)

Summary: The piexif third-party library raises build-time exceptions for some uncommon Exif tag types with values coded unexpectedly by some cameras. thumbspage 1.7 now tries to correct specific known instances, and skips auto-rotation for others with a message instead of terminating the run; manually rotate the offenders and rerun if desired. This patch doesn't change the code of any generated pages, so no existing galleries need be rebuilt for its point release.

As described earlier, thumbspage 1.7 adopts and bundles the piexif third-party library, for updating Exif orientation and dimension tags in auto-rotated images. The Pillow library used by thumbspage for all other image processing can extract and set Exif data as a single blob of bytes, but cannot readily change individual tags; piexif adds parsing to and generation from an easily changed tags dictionary.

Unfortunately, piexif also appears to have a bug which causes it to raise exceptions at gallery-build time for some less common Exif tags, when trying to convert its changeable dictionary back into a storable blob. This happens even for tags parsed by piexif itself and unchanged by thumbspage. Whether or not the offending data uses type coding that deviates from the Exif standard, this seems a clear design flaw: piexif should be more forgiving, and should not abort when reformatting data which it created.

For a general review of the issue, see the formal report of this piexif bug on GitHub. In thumbspage specifically, the following cropped up for photos shot on a Samsung Galaxy Note 9 smartphone which were part of a folder being built into a gallery:

Making thumbnail: test/_thumbspage/2018-11-15__172646.jpg
--Reorienting tilted image
--Source rotate failed: skipped
Exception: "dump" got wrong type of exif value.
41729 in Exif IFD. Got as <class 'int'>.

This photo was shot in 2018 and is hardly ancient in 2020, but Galaxy cameras have historically had issues conforming to the Exif tag standard (a different tags-related issue arose in the tagpix program for photos from the same device category). Still, piexif should do better than failing with the message above. In this case, tag 41729 maps to SceneType—an uncommon Exif tag that piexif correctly defines as a byte but happily parses as an integer, which in turn triggers exceptions in its unparsing method.

Also unfortunately, although thumbspage did catch and recover from the piexif exception, it failed later when querying image size, because the offending image file was not present—its original was moved to its backup copy, but never rewritten in rotated form. This terminated the thumbspage run in full, and left the gallery unbuilt:

Generating view page for: 2018-11-15__172303.jpg
Traceback (most recent call last):
...details cut...
FileNotFoundError: [Errno 2] No such file or directory: 'test/2018-11-15__172646.jpg'

To work around this, thumbspage now both fixes known offending tags, and restores originals on failing rotations so builds can proceed. For example, thumbspage special-cases tag 41729 to accommodate piexif's expectations, with code like this:

origexif = imgstart.info.get('exif', b'')      # original raw bytes from Pillow
parsedexif = piexif.load(origexif)             # parse to dict for changes here
parsedExif = parsedexif['Exif']                # parsed tags: dict of dicts
if 41729 in parsedExif:
    tagval = parsedExif[41729]                 # miscoded on some Galaxy
    if type(tagval) is int:                    # munge from int to byte                
        if 0 <= tagval <= 255:
            parsedExif[41729] = bytes([tagval])
            print('--Note: bad SceneType Exif tag type was corrected')
            del parsedExif[41729]
            print('--Note: bad SceneType Exif tag type was dropped')
saveexif = piexif.dump(parsedexif)             # back to raw bytes for Pillow

Per another piexif bug report, a similar fix is applied for tag 37121 to convert integer tuples to bytes, though this was never seen to crash thumbspage. When corrected, tags leave a note in the run's output:

Making thumbnail: test/_thumbspage/2018-11-15__172646.jpg
--Reorienting tilted image
--Note: bad SceneType Exif tag type was corrected

Additionally, on piexif failures, thumbspage now automatically restores the failing image's backed-up original, to avoid terminating altogether. The failing image won't be rotated, but the gallery build will run to completion successfully, and a message in the logs directs users to try rotating the offending image manually and rerunning; here's the scene if the 41729-fixer code is disabled:

Making thumbnail: test/_thumbspage/2018-11-15__172646.jpg
--Reorienting tilted image
--Source rotate failed: skipped
Exception: "dump" got wrong type of exif value.
41729 in Exif IFD. Got as .
--Rotate manually and rerun if desired
...and finish the build...

To see all the code changed by this update, search for Jun-2020 in viewer_thumbs.py. Again, no generated page code is modified by this patch; it's an improvement to build-time mechanics only. thumbspage also considered rotating without Exif updates on piexif failures (as before 1.7), but the consequences for this are worse than requiring manual rotations for skips. As a reminder, you can always disable image rotations altogether in the configs file, if the failure messages grow too grievous; see the 1.6 note.

Like many, this work-around is a stopgap measure. The real solution is a fix for piexif which better handles oddball tags, and type mismatches in general. As is, this seems a general and broad issue in the library, which may not be addressable by one-off tag patches in clients. Until a better piexif becomes available, the best thumbspage can sometimes do is skip auto-rotations for photos that crash piexif's otherwise highly useful utilities. Alas, third-party dependencies make programs, well, dependent.

1.6: Scaling, Rotation

Version 1.6 was finalized on October 28, 2018. This version was released multiple times with new features in each release; release dates identify point releases. Its main extensions are dynamic image scaling and image auto-rotation, but it introduces numerous enhancements to the program—including this HTML guide.

This version was last repackaged as an interim release in February 2019 with a minor change to avoid a tkinter dependency for contexts that have Pillow but not tkinter (e.g., some Android Python apps). The tkinter module is now required only when running the simple GUI viewer. For more details, see the update note above for version 1.7, which formally adopted this change.

Dynamic Image Scaling

Despite the prior version's hand-waving, thumbspage's image-viewer pages now use JavaScript in their generated HTML to dynamically scale images to available display size, while preserving original aspect ratio and avoiding content screen overflow. The net effect emulates browser-native scaling in viewer pages, while allowing for extra control widgets. The former CSS scaling scheme is still used, but only for no-JavaScript views and iOS landscape mode. In more detail:

On desktop browsers
This is a complete solution. Images are now scaled to fill but not overflow available window space both initially and when windows are resized, on all desktop browsers and platforms tested—including Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, and Internet Explorer 9 and 11, across macOS, Windows, and Linux. Users may freely resize their window to change the size of the image, but need no longer resize to view it in full.
On mobile browsers
This is a major improvement. Images are now scaled to fill but not overflow available display space both initially and on device orientation changes, on all mobile browsers and platforms tested—including Chrome and Firefox on Android, and Chrome, Safari, and Firefox on iOS. Taller images, for example, may now occupy more available space. On mobiles which support popup or split-screen windows, images are also resized with window-size changes, though this may be most useful on larger devices.

Exception: on iOS only, images are always fully scaled in portrait device orientation, but for implementation reasons fall back on version 1.5's CSS scrollable scaling result in landscape device mode (in short, display size returned by iOS in this mode is unusable). Android fully scales images always, which yields smaller but complete landscape images—which is arguably better, but open to feedback.

Update: thumbspage 1.7 now also uses JavaScript scaling for images in landscape mode on iOS, in all browsers. This includes iOS Safari, which still has landscape issues in earlier versions, but gained a new toolbar-hiding option in iOS 13 which can fully solve former thumbspage problems. Chrome, among others, now works the same in landscape on Android and iOS. Read more about this change here.

On both device types, a "Loading..." message is also posted as a visual status indicator. Version 1.5 deemed JavaScript a "nonstarter" partly because of the added complexity, but mostly because locking out users who don't wish to run JavaScript is a rude non-option. Here, though, pages still work when JavaScript is disabled—they use the former 1.5 CSS scaling, with a note recommending JavaScript results. Turn off JS in your browser to see how 1.5 CSS scaling compares, and see the code for more details.

Image Auto-Rotation

thumbspage now automatically reorients (rotates) tilted source images and their thumbspage-generated thumbnails to be right-side up (top edge on top), if they have valid "Orientation" Exif tags (see the standard). This is really just an automatic alternative to manually rotating tilted images before making thumbs, but is especially useful for photos shot on smartphones that commonly tilt photos shot in the natural portrait (vertical) device orientation.

Less positively, this feature applies only to images with reliable Exif tags (e.g., JPEG and TIFF) from cameras and tools that tag as expected. More intrusively, this feature must rotate source-image files too (not just their thumbnails), because not all viewers will rotate images when opened from thumbnails. In thumbspage specifically, web browsers will not rotate tilted source images (except on "Raw" clicks), because its viewer pages display source images as in-page elements. The related PyPhoto program now also adjusts for orientation in memory only and does not require image copies, but uses forked thumbnail-generation code (see its website).

Because this feature modifies source images in-place, it by default saves them to backup copies with a .original extension before making changes. Users may also control the feature with two new settings in user_configs.py: autoRotateImages can turn the feature off, and backupRotatedImages can skip its .original backups. Disable rotation if needed or desired, and manually rotate tilted images before running thumbspage as preferred.

See examples/reorientation for a test case's results; that folder's restore-prerotate-originals.py utility to restore from backups; and module viewer_thumbs.py for implementation code (rotation is neither an automatic nor an easy option for Pillow/PIL thumbnails). Caveat: rotated source images drop the originals' Exif tags, but rotated images are not the same as the original (some tags might not apply); they are meant to be viewed in HTML galleries only; and some other image-processing tools drop the tags too.

Update: version 1.7 now retains and updates Exif tags in JPEG images rotated and saved (read the details). This Exifs propagation grew more important with 1.7's new info dialogs which display date-taken tag data.

Update: though rare, it's possible for rotations to fail due to permission errors, miscoded Exif tags, and other reasons. Check the output for messages if a photo remains tilted in a gallery, and see this 1.7 note for one cause of rotation failures.

Update: as noted at version 1.7, 2.0 explored the idea of dropping rotations in thumbspage itself, by propagating sources' Exif orientation tags to their thumbnails and relying on browsers to rotate. This was abandoned because browsers don't support rotations universally, especially for in-page elements like those in thumbspage viewer pages; thumbspage must rotate because some browsers don't. See the 2.0 note and demo.

Update: as of version 2.1, embedded thumbnails in images automatically rotated for in-page display are automatically deleted, to avoid issues with tools like file explorers that may grow confused if the main image is rotated but its embedded thumbnail is not. See the 2.1 release note; deleting is substantially simpler than updating the nested thumb.

Other 1.6 Changes

In addition to the main items above, version 1.6 also:

  1. Adds the HTML user/developer guide you are reading, as a replacement for the former in-code and text-based documentation. Text is easier to code, but HTML can be much nicer to read.

  2. Moves configuration options and viewer-page HTML to separate files for easier viewing and edits. See Customization above for links and story.

  3. Uses _thumbspage as the default name of its thumbnails + viewer-pages subfolder, to avoid clashing with other content. The former "thumbs" name default may still appear in some docs and screenshots. Prior-Version users: your "thumbs" folder will be unused; manually delete or rename, or set THUMBS='thumbs' in user_configs.py.

  4. Expands image-folder name . to its true basename in generated default-header text, and appends a / to subfolder hyperlinks so they will not trigger redirects or clash with files if and where it matters. Because the . fix uses Python's os.path.abspath() to expand the dot, it also properly names image-folder paths with any "." or ".." (e.g., ".", "..", "../..", "../Desktop/trnpix/../trnpix/.", and other oddities).

  5. Adds a new configuration setting, templateEncoding, which allows the Unicode encoding of the viewer page template file to be easily configured, and differ from that of index-page header and footer files. Its preset default and generally recommended setting is the broad UTF-8; edit user_configs.py to tailor.

    Note that this new setting is used for loading the template file only; generated viewer pages instead use the same Unicode setting for saves as index pages—outputEncoding. The two settings may be the same or differ, depending on your usage. The Unicode encoding declared in viewer-page <meta> tags also uses outputEncoding automatically so that it agrees with page content; if you manually edit this tag, it should similarly agree.

    Update: as of version 2.0, templateEncoding is now also used to load the floating Top button's template-floatingtop.html file, whose code is added to index pages per outputEncoding. See the 2.0 note.

  6. Adds an expandSmallImages option in user_configs.py. If False, the maximum viewer-page scale ratio is 1.0, which constrains images to an actual-size maximum, and thereby avoids stretching and possibly blurring small images. If True, smaller images are always expanded to display size.

    The preset default is False, because this is generally better when smaller images are present (e.g., icons, and small-window screenshots). Use True for the prior expanding behavior which may be preferred in some contexts. Note that this setting applies only to small images; most digital photos and scans are far larger than display areas, and will only be scaled down.

  7. Uses JavaScript viewer-page code to avoid adding viewer pages to destack browser history where supported, so that N image views don't require N browser Back clicks to get back to pre-gallery context; a single Back returns to the gallery entry page. This destacking works everywhere but Chrome on iOS, where the feature is disabled (i.e., viewer pages are stacked on history and retraced by Back clicks for this browser only). The JS template file hosts most of the implementation's code (view its source).

    This feature works and is used in Chrome on Android+Windows+Mac; in Safari+Firefox on iOS; and in all other 20+ browsers tested (including Internet Explorer 9, and other Android browsers). The failure in Chrome on iOS is clearly a bug in its location.replace() of versions 64 and 68 tested; if used in this browser, Back clicks redisplay the same page N times for N image views, which is worse than stacking pages.

    Because this might be fixed in the future, user_configs.py's new chromeiOSBackFixed controls the iOS Chrome disabling. At present, though, Chrome on iOS is just 0.40% of the audience at the site hosting this program (just 10.96% of iOS, which is itself just 3.67% overall); it makes no sense to omit an enhancement for 99.6% of users, for the sake of just 0.40%. For more of this site's analytics, visit this page.

    Update: history destacking is still broken in iOS Chrome, as of its version 75 in May 2020. Its history-cropping location.replace() method runs without error, but silently stacks all pages. This requires Back clicks to retrace all images viewed—marginally better than displaying the same page N times, but still nonfunctional. The disable is still on by default in the configs file, though its effect is currently moot (pages are stacked either way).

    Update: because this iOS Chrome work-around is no different than the browser's current buggy behavior, version 2.0 makes the work-around bypass switch's default True. This skips the work-around, and stacks navigation pages in this browser's history today, but will also pick up a true Chrome fix if one ever appears.

    Update: as of June 2020, this iOS Chrome history bug appears to now be fixed in Chrome 83 (its actual fix version is unknown, but Chrome 75 was still broken). No changes are required, because the former update's config-file change sufficed to adopt the new, fixed behavior. For more details see the 2.0 note.

  8. Works around a Pillow library bug that could occur only in limited usage contexts for folders having very many images. In brief, Pillow's auto-close of loaded image files does not work as documented, which can lead to "Too many open files" errors after many thumbnails have been generated. Here, this meant that results could reflect partial source content for very large folders, though only on macOS in general.

    The best and applied fix is to manually open and close image files, instead of passing filenames to Pillow. With this change, arbitrarily large folders are supported in all contexts. For more details on both the bug and its work-around, see module viewer_thumbs.py, where the fix is coded.

  9. Works around a Chrome issue on Windows and Linux, by using auto-scroll: hidden CSS for the body, to forcibly hide the vertical scrollbar. Else, Chrome (and possibly older Firefox) flash a scrollbar momentarily during viewer-page loads. This setting doesn't impact displays in any other way, and scrollbars are never required on viewer pages (images are scaled, not scrolled).

    Caveat: Chrome on Android (only) may still sometimes very briefly flash a vertical scrollbar anyhow. This may be an indicator or other normal behavior, but seems more likely a browser bug with no known work-around—applying the hidden setting to "html" in CSS doesn't help. This is minor and cosmetic, but like much web experience, has to be chalked up to browser idiosyncrasy.

  10. Works around a Chrome desktop peculiarity, by using thin instead of 1px for CSS <img> border-width in both index and viewer pages (for thumbs and images). On this browser only, 1px can cause some image borders to not be drawn at zoom levels < 100% due to fractional pixel math. thin is equivalent to 1px in size today (not 2px, as once rumored on the web), but does not suffer from pixel-math cloaking, and doesn't impact displays otherwise.

    This works through Chrome desktop zoom level 50%; below that Chrome (again, only) may drop viewer-page bottom borders for some window sizes, but that's a reasonable usage cutoff (pages requiring a microscope are off-table). Using a 1.5px almost works, but can add empty space between border and content. To test borders, see this site.

    As part of this work-around, image border color was also made configurable for both page types; set border color to background color to omit borders altogether. Note that index-page table top/bottom borders work unchanged as 1px, and this 1.6 change is disjoint from 1.5's <hr> Chrome fix noted ahead.

1.5: Viewer Pages

Version 1.5 was finalized on August 12, 2018. This version's main feature is the introduction of image viewer pages, which were further improved in version 1.6 (see its notes). A set of extra enhancements rounds out the release.

Image Viewer Pages

In addition to its former thumbnail-index pages, thumbspage now generates a styled viewer page for each image in the folder, instead of relying on each browser's native image display.

Viewer pages are opened on index-page thumbnail clicks, and have filename, the image scaled per CSS, view-native and go-to-index links, and previous/next-image links that cycle through all images without having to return to the index page. Viewer pages center images horizontally, but not vertically; the latter is too jarring during next/previous navigation.

Viewer pages are generated in the thumbs folder, along with the prior version's thumbnail-index image files. They can also be suppressed via console input prompts; when omitted, images open in browsers directly and natively, as before. To view an example client live, visit this site.

Caveat: because image scaling is weak with CSS alone (and JavaScript seems both overkill and non-starter for this project), 1.5 image-viewer pages should be considered an optional feature. See "1.5 Usage Note" for deployment suggestions, and in-code documentation in the main script for more details.

Update: version 1.6 later replaced 1.5's CSS scaling with much better JavaScript dynamic image scaling for most use cases, and deleted the now-moot "1.5 Usage Note" referenced above. See the 1.6's release notes above.

Other 1.5 Changes

In addition to the main items above, version 1.5 also:

  1. Formalizes index-page and navigation ordering. It's now case sensitive by default everywhere, but can be changed in user_configs.py if case-neutral (Windows-like) ordering is preferred; see that file's setting caseSensOrder. See also orderedListing() in thumbspage.py for more details.

  2. Formalizes URL-escapes' Unicode encoding, which determines the content of %xx-formatted bytes. It's now always UTF-8, regardless of the encoding used for whole HTML pages, because this seems to be required by both standards and browsers. See also url_escape() in thumbspage.py for more details.

  3. Sets body font to Arial (sans serif) for default-header index pages. This is cosmetically nicer, and matches the new viewer pages' precoded font. This font is set for the body in a default header <style> block only and not inlined in generated page components, so that global font can differ in a custom HEADER.html file.

  4. Works around a desktop Chrome <hr> bug which botches the separator line (it's much lighter at some zoom levels than others). To fix, the thumbs table was restyled to use table top and bottom borders instead of <hr>s. As a consequence, the thumbs table now always stretches to 100% window width, to extend the border lines (this was formerly a configuration, off by default). See also the 1.6 Chrome fix for vanishing <img> borders.

  5. Sets thumbs-table background color to light grey as part of the former note's <hr> restyling, and allows it to be changed in user_configs.py. The new viewer pages' colors (and others) can be similarly tailored in that file.

  6. Refactors its code to functions (it's now large enough that top-level code is difficult to navigate), and cleans up its page output (HTML/CSS is tough to read as it is).

  7. Still uses all-inline styles for the thumbnails tables on index pages, not <style> blocks, so that custom HEADER.html files need not include or link to styles for the generated table. Conversely, viewer pages use a <style> block, as they are not customizable without HTML edits (yet?).

1.4: Mobile

Version 1.4 was finalized on March 4, 2018. In this release, this script's output page better supports browsers on smaller screens (e.g., mobile phones and tablets), and looks nicer in general. Its new generated CSS code:

  1. Autoscrolls the thumbs table to appease mobile browsers.

  2. Adds padding to thumb cells to reduce run-together.

  3. Center-aligns thumbs images for a more even look; this helps overall, but especially for narrow/portrait images.

  4. Uses nowrap paragraphs for image labels; the former <br>+wrap scheme looked jumbled, and made Chrome (only!) arrange thumbs-table columns unevenly in small windows (the leftmost was narrower).

This version also adds a mobile-friendly viewport <meta> tag to default headers if useViewPort is True in user_configs.py (this is its preset default). This may impact other page components; use a custom HEADER.html file for more options and control where needed.

Tip: because filenames used on labels are now not wrapped, their width largely determines column spacing in the index page; use shorter filenames for less space between (i.e., narrower) columns.

1.3: Unicode

Version 1.3 was finalized on August 8, 2016. This version makes several changes to better accommodate arbitrary non-ASCII Unicode filenames and page content (see the live demo). Specifically, this release:

  1. HTML-escapes all added text—image, folder, subfolder names.

  2. URL-escapes all added links—to thumbs, images, subfolders, and viewer pages in 1.5.

  3. Outputs the generated index file in UTF-8 Unicode encoding by default, with a content-type <meta> tag. ASCII content is unchanged, as it is a subset of UTF-8. Other encodings may be used for the output file via setting outputEncoding in file user_configs.py. This setting is also used to save viewer pages, per the 1.5 update below.

  4. Loads any header and footer inserts per UTF-8 Unicode encoding by default, as it is general and supports ASCII directly. Other encodings, including the platform's default, may be used for inserts via setting insertEncoding in file user_configs.py. Note that this setting is used for insert-file loads only; generated pages are always saved per outputEncoding, which may or may not differ in your usage.

  5. Assumes any inserts are both HTML-safe and compatible with the default or configured inserts encoding. Be sure to verify your inserts before using this program's results.

See examples/unicode/images for the results of a comprehensive Unicode-content test case.

Note: if you use a custom HEADER.html file, make sure that the Unicode type declared in its content-type <meta> tag matches the setting for outputEncoding (#3 above). thumbspage uses the latter to save the whole index-page (including the content of its thumbnails table), so these two encodings must be the same or compatible.

Update: version 1.5 further refines URL escapes to use UTF-8 encoding for escape byte values, and loads its new viewer pages as UTF-8 by default (configurable as of 1.6 by setting templateEncoding; viewer pages are still output per outputEncoding). The Unicode test's folder also moved to the new path named above, and thumbspage development switched from Windows ("\") to macOS ("/") along the way, though some docs may still retain their former Windows bias.

1.2: Styling

Version 1.2 was finalized on August 1, 2016. This version adds assorted cosmetic tweaks, mainly in the name of better thumbnails-table styling, and subject to settings now in file user_configs.py. Primarily, this release:

  1. Uses uniform-width columns, instead of sizing columns per content (on by default; see setting uniformColumns).

  2. Stretches the thumbs table to fill the whole window or display (off by default; see setting spanFullWindow).

    Update: this is now always on to expand the table borders added for the 1.5 <hr> fix.

  3. Adds a scrollbar if the window is too small? (prototyped but skipped in 1.2).

    Update: this was obsoleted by version 1.4's auto-scrolls.

1.1: Subfolders

Version 1.1 was finalized on July 27, 2016. This version adds an automatic subfolder-links list to the index page just before the thumbnails table, if enabled by setting listSubfolders in file user_configs.py. This feature can be used to build nested galleries, or folders with supplemental gallery information.

This feature is on by default. It creates a links list with one entry for every subfolder nested in the images folder. The links in turn open the subfolder, with a result that varies per usage mode. For example, online views may automatically open the subfolder's index.html page or web-server index, while offline views open a simple directory listing. See your web server for online configurations, and click an index.html manually when offline.

As a convenience, automatic subfolder-link lists skip (do not display) folders whose names are prefixed with a _ or . character, as well as the generated thumbnails folder (whether it's named with a _ or . prefix or not). You can use folder names that start with a _, for instance, for related content that you do not wish to publish in your gallery.

Note: if enabled, the subfolder-links list is generated whether you use a custom HEADER.html file or not. When a custom header is used, the list's code appears after the header's text. Hence, pages that use a custom header may wish to either accommodate the list in the header's opening narrative, or disable this feature and code the list manually as desired. Naturally, this may vary per gallery, and matters only if there are subfolders in your images folder.

Tip: thumbspage must be run on each image subfolder in a tree separately, and subfolder index.html files must be clicked manually offline as noted above. The tree is not walked automatically because its folders may have arbitrary content, and subfolder links do not automatically open index.html files because some subfolders may not have them (e.g., a docs-only subfolder). If you really want subfolders' index files to open automatically when offline, you might consider running a web server on the local machine.

Update: version 2.1 now allows the space between subfolder links to be customized with subfolderSpacer in configs, and increases this setting's default from 6 CSS pixels to 7 to make taps easier on mobile devices. See 2.1's release note.

1.0: The Basics

Version 1.0 was finalized on July 24, 2016. It provides a basic thumbnails-index page, with generated thumbnail images that open browser-native views. Its functionality is limited, but its results already beat default folder pages.

As normal, later thumbspage releases were spurred by using this program over time. Where it goes next is limited only by developer availability and user experience. The next and final section sketches a few TBDs for future consideration—and argues against many of them.

Development Notes

Like all software, thumbspage is an open-ended project. In closing, this section collects implementation-related issues and proposals, some of which hail from early releases and have been resolved over time. They're likely of most interest to developers, though some usage context might also be gleaned along the way. A few of these items are also outstanding questions, open to feedback; if you have preferences or suggestions, please pass them along with the Input link on this doc's bottom toolbar.

Also note that this list is not necessarily complete; search for "caveat" in code files for additional code-related items, and see Version History above for more on changes both noted and not noted here. This section hosts the following content:

  1. Info popups display a subset of Exif tags
  2. Embedded thumbnails are ignored
  3. Image types are not universally supported
  4. Rotations drop Exif tags (closed)
  5. Android Chrome scrollbar oddment
  6. Extra-files overhead
  7. Parent-folder links
  8. Index-file location
  9. Meta tags for custom headers
  10. More code clean up
  11. Mobile landscape scaling (closed)
  12. Chrome history destacking bug (closed)
  13. More user customizations
  14. Dynamic index-page columns
  15. Image information display (closed)
  16. Browser fullscreen-mode options (closed)
  17. Automatic slideshows (closed)
  18. A floating "Top" for index pages (closed)
  19. Can reorientation be dropped? (closed)
  20. Per-image notes?
  21. How about a GUI?
Info popups display a subset of Exif tags
As of 2.0, thumbspage displays up to six lines of mostly static image information in its info popups on filename taps. As noted earlier, there's much more that could be displayed (Exif defines very many data items, including GPS location info), but this must be weighed against UI simplicity. Though highly partial, the current subset of data displayed seems likely to align with the primary interests of both users and creators.
Embedded thumbnails are ignored
Per the Exif standard, some images may embed prebuilt thumbnail images. thumbspage by design instead uses custom-built thumbnails stored in a subfolder, because embedded thumbnails are not guaranteed to be present; may not reflect changes made to the full image; and cannot easily be pulled out dynamically by JavaScript code running only in a browser, under thumbspage's serverless model.

Less positively, thumbspage also does not update an embedded thumbnail when it rotates a full image (it rotates only the thumbnail it generates itself). This, however, seems a trivial concern: thumbspage gallery images are largely intended for browser-based display, and other tools should continue to automatically accommodate any lingering thumbnail orientation. That said, it's not impossible that some file explorers might become confused, and display a still-flipped embedded thumbnail; improvements TBD.

Update: as of version 2.1, embedded thumbnails in images automatically rotated for in-page display are automatically deleted, to avoid issues with tools like file explorers that may grow confused if the main image is rotated but its embedded thumbnail is not. See the 2.1 release note.

Image types are not universally supported
As described earlier, some web browsers do not support TIFF images directly—most notably, current Chrome and Firefox. TIFFs may work in some such browsers with installed plugins, and may be displayable via complex JavaScript/canvas server-based techniques that are well beyond the scope of this project. Rarer image types are even more unlikely to be supportable. Safari, for example, is scheduled to support WebP but does not today; and was seen to initially display—but later crash on—an index page with TIFFs, TGAs, and PBMs. Ultimately, this seems an inherent tradeoff for viewing images in browsers: portability is enhanced, but so is third-party dependence. Image conversion may be the best work-around. For more pointers, try a search.
Rotations drop Exif tags (closed)
As described earlier, rotated images lose their original Exif tags, because this is how the Pillow library saves them by default. It may be possible to restore some manually, but it's unclear if this should be done; rotated images are not the same as original photos (e.g., former location and date tags don't quite apply).

Update: 1.7 now retains and updates Exif tags in JPEG images rotated and saved (read the details). This grew more important with 1.7's new info dialogs which display date-taken tag data.

Android Chrome scrollbar oddment
As described earlier, Chrome on Android (only) may very briefly display a vertical scrollbar when viewer pages are loading, despite this program's best efforts. This is a minor cosmetic issue and is probably a browser bug (or normal idiosyncrasy?), but a work-around proved elusive.
Extra-files overhead
As described earlier, this script adds 2 files for every 1 source image (thumbnail image and viewer page). That's negligible in most use cases, but may become significant in archives with very many files (10k images means 20k extra files). This might be addressed by using a single thumbs file instead of a folder (see PyPhoto's pickle-file scheme), but that would be complex and slow compared to the direct page-to-page and image links generated by thumbspage. It may also require cross-page state, local storage access, or a server, and break cross-platform or offline use. As is, users can generally zip thumbs folders where needed.
Parent-folder links
A ".." parent up-link is not generated in automatic subfolder lists; should it be? The parent may or may not have images, and may be altogether unrelated. Conversely, it's impossible to generate direct down-links to index files in subfolders, because subfolders may not be image folders. Both ideas are probably too automatic to be useful—or even correct—in all cases.
Index-file location
Creating the index file in the image folder might preclude use of some page-generation tools (e.g., the trnpix client's footer must copy HTML code that would be added automatically if accessible to site-generation tools used). Most likely, though, accommodating every site build tool is impractical and impossible.
Meta tags for custom headers
This program might generate a doctype and meta content-type tag in all index cases—not just for default headers—but that would limit doctype and Unicode options in custom headers. As is, custom-header files get complete control of header content, by design.
More code clean up
Even after refactoring to functions in 1.5, there are still a lot of globals in this program's code; clean up more in a future release? Alas, this program's origin as top-level script code is an enduring legacy.
Mobile landscape scaling (closed)
Which is better for 1.6 images scaling on mobile devices in landscape orientation: iOS scrollable or Android shrunken? The former was mandated by iOS's lack of display-size support and mandatory obscuring toolbars, but may be preferable to some users.

Update: 1.7 shows Android landscape images slightly larger after a fix for large-font image clipping, and makes it more natural to view images full size by making an image tap the same as the Raw button (see the details here). This helps, but the Android landscape scaling question is still open.

Update: 1.7's final release adopted JavaScript scaling for images in landscape mode on iOS, in all browsers. This includes Safari, which still has issues in older versions, but gained a toolbar-hiding option in iOS 13 which can solve its problems, and justifies the new uniform approach. Chrome and others now work the same in landscape on Android and iOS. Read more about this change here. CSS scaling is still available for Safari on iOS, but only as a legacy option.

Chrome history destacking bug (closed)
Chrome on iOS has a location.replace() bug that required disabling a Back feature on that browser, per version 1.6 notes (and their May 2020 update) above. Watch for a browser fix and change the configuration if and when it appears.

Update: Per the 1,6 note above, iOS Chrome fixed this bug as of version 83 (and perhaps earlier), and the thumbspage config file setting was changed in 2.0 to skip the temporary work-around; unless this resurfaces in the future, no other action is required.

More user customizations
As noted earlier, colors on both page types (and much more) can now be customized in user_configs.py, and custom index-page fonts can be had via CSS in a HEADER.html (see the configurations file for pointers). Still, user customization is open ended—and pending usage feedback. For example, default-header title and text could be configurable too, though they naturally vary per folder and might have to be changed often.
Dynamic index-page columns
The number of columns on the generated index page might be dynamically configured in JavaScript from viewport size on resizes (much like the current dynamic scaling of view-page images), but this may be complex (e.g., label font size would matter), could be too jarring as windows are resized on desktop browsers, and may make for very long pages on mobile.

Update: tables are fixed grids that don't support automatic wrapping on resizes, but it's possible to layout image links with cells that do wrap to display size dynamically by generating CSS and HTML code of this sort:

   #thumbslinks>div {display: inline-block; vertical-align: top}

   <div id="thumbslinks">
       <div>...image link and filename label...</div>
       <div>...image link and filename label...</div>
Unfortunately, this doesn't retain fixed-sized columns like tables do; cells are scattered randomly across the page. There may be ways to get this to work better (e.g., force all cell sizes to the longest filename label), but scrolled tables seem just as reasonable, and this remains TBD.

Update: release 2.1 implemented dynamically sized/resized index-link tables, using the layout model above, along with fixed cell sizes and CSS styling that tries to simulate columns with the maximum of thumbnail-image and filename-label widths. The new dynamic layout is available as an alternative to the former fixed-column tables, but not enabled by default, because it typically yields just one or two columns on mobile: this avoids some minor horizontal scrolling, but makes for much more vertical scrolling in non-trivial galleries. Fixed tables seem a better scrolling tradeoff for mobile, but your needs may naturally vary. PC-only galleries, for instance, might prefer the dynamic model; on desktop, the new model shows more or fewer thumbs per row on window resizes, but doesn't stretch or shrink the space between them. See 2.1's release note for details.

Image information display (closed)
In principle, this program's results might also display image metadata (e.g., date-taken and location tags) if present. On the other hand, this wouldn't make sense for use cases like program documentation and other screenshots. More fundamentally, this would clutter and complicate viewer pages (minimally, with a new "Info" button), and, given thumbspage's intentionally static, server-optional paradigm, would require build-time generation of JavaScript popup details or additional pages—all of which might suffice to break this program's simplicity and usability.

Update: 1.7 added an image-info dialog, but kept the program simple by using a JavaScript alert() call, and avoided GUI clutter by invoking the dialog with a tap on the existing filename field. This dialog's information is mostly build-time static, and could be more grandiose, but it probably shouldn't be.

Update: 2.0 expanded info-popup content, and replaced its alert() call with a custom dialog (a page overlay with opacity and scrollable content box). This is more complex, but is a much better solution, given the limitations of alert() described in the 2.0 release note.

Browser fullscreen-mode options (closed)
Web browsers are starting to settle on a JavaScript API for fullscreen display, which might be used for thumbspage index and image-viewer pages. Unfortunately, this API today is both divergent and supported unevenly across popular browsers (yes, surprise!); its use must be triggered by a user action (e.g., a new Full button); and it seems too awkward and jarring on desktop platforms to adopt for image views (e.g., an odd exit-key message may be posted temporarily). Moreover, fullscreen may in thumbspage be no better than Raw/image taps (especially when paired on desktops with a manual window maximize). Fullscreen may be best used for long-lived content like videos, not action-based galleries.

Update: 2.0 implements a fullscreen mode toggled by a new Full button, but makes it optional because of its downsides. Besides being unsupported on some platforms, JavaScript-induced fullscreen lasts for just one page, which makes it much less useful than manual but persistent fullscreen options available in many browsers. Hence, Full is shown by default but can be easily disabled per gallery if it seems just a browser parlor trick; your gallery's users may, however, find it useful as a quick zoom. If used, Full doesn't crowd or break viewer toolbars because they now scroll (but normally don't have to, even on small devices). For more details, see the 2.0 release note.

Implementation notes: thumbspage's fullscreen toggle uses the JavaScript requestFullscreen() call in document.documentElement, along with its cohorts. Because this API is not universally available, prefixed variants are also tried on browsers that don't support the standard; even then, some browsers ignore fullscreen requests altogether today. Hence, thumbspage's Full isn't supported where it isn't supported. Such is life in the splintered world of web development.

Automatic slideshows (closed)
It might be useful to add an automatic slideshow option, which advances through a gallery's image-viewer pages automatically after timed delays (which are straightforward in JavaScript). Unfortunately, this would require additional UI elements (e.g., a Show button) which would crowd and complicate the viewer display which is already cramped on mobile. This also raises substantial implementation issues: because thumbspage's statically generated pages run without a web server, they have limited options for passing state between pages to notify the next of an active slideshow. To be researched.

Update: 2.0 added automatic slideshows and redesigned viewer-page toolbars to accommodate them: instead of adding widgets, slideshows are toggled by a new Auto button that replaces the former Raw, which grew redundant with 1.7's addition of filename taps. The slideshow's button is a no-op without JavaScript, but so are dynamic image scaling, info popups, and Top; users are warned if JavaScript is off, and thumbspage now generally assumes that it will be on. The toolbar now also scrolls to alleviate UI cramping altogether, though this is more important for the preceding note's Full. For more details, see the related 2.0 notes here and here.

Implementation notes: cross-page state retention in JavaScript turned out to be trivial: HTML5 session storage, client-side cookies, and the window.name attribute all persist between pages, and can be used to record a slideshow toggle. Of these, the latter was used initially because it's simple and won't be disabled, but HTML5 session storage was later adopted due to a flaw in Safari: see above. Note that other JavaScript variables won't work—unlike the DOM-defined window.name, page-defined attributes (e.g., window.autoToggle) do not persist across pages; if used, Auto switches pages once, but the attribute is undefined in the next page.

Handling JavaScript timer events is also easy: they're cleared manually by the page on toggle off and automatically by browsers on gallery/page exit, and are rescheduled on each viewer-page load while the tab-global slideshow toggle is on (some of which may be more conceptual than literal: browser back-forward caches and quirks may muddle this story). Subtle to be sure, but broadly functional nonetheless.

A floating "Top" for index pages (closed)
thumbspage index pages with very many thumbnails might benefit from a floating Top button, of the sort used in this doc. This was rejected, because it would clutter the display badly; may be awkward on mobile, where index the table is horizontally scrolled; wouldn't work if JavaScript was disabled; and seems unnecessary for all but the most pathologically large indexes. As is, pages with 2K images are reasonably usable, and galleries should as a rule be capped at a few hundred images to avoid user overload. More fundamentally, there may be nothing at the top of the page worth jumping to: indexes are just tables of links. Navigation aids are great, unless they're also pointless.

Update: 2.0 added a floating Top to index pages as an optional-but-default widget, because some pages do have useful top content, users may wish to start a slideshow at the first image, and large indexes can make for lots of scrolling on mobiles. Still, Top can be omitted via a setting in the configs file if it seems useless clutter for your gallery's use case. Where used, its colors, scroll threshold, and page location can also be tailored for custom needs (e.g., for larger or smaller headers and toolbars). For more details, see the 2.0 release note.

Can reorientation be dropped? (closed)
As described in this 2.0 note, it may be possible to reimplement thumbspage without rotating source or thumbnail images, by copying sources' orientation tags to their thumbnails. This remains to be proved and is described in full in the note; it's relisted here so that it might get some attention in upcoming release cycles.

Update: no, it cannot—per the 2.0 note, browsers do not support rotations widely enough in fall 2020 to rely on this. thumbspage must rotate images itself because some browser's don't.

Per-image notes?
In principle, it might be useful to add a per-image note feature: for any image file filename.ext, if a text file filename.txt is also present in the images folder, thumbspage could generate an index-page link which opens the text file when tapped. This would support documentation more specific than the general opening narrative available in a custom header file. This hasn't been pursued, because there seems no good way to do this without cluttering what is an intentionally simple UI: hover events won't apply to mobile, links on filename labels just below images would be difficult to tap, and adding new widgets would be too much. In the end, thumbspage galleries are simple on purpose, and generally prefer to remain that way.

Update: version 2.3 added per-image notes anyhow, as described in full here. For the UI, this took the form of a single Note button on viewer pages (with line-throughs when notes are absent), along with an equivalent up-swipe gesture on touch. Notes themselves were limited to plain text in .note files in the images folder, with content popped up in-page to be less jarring than separate files. This is arguably simple, and provides a new narration component to galleries that's sorely needed in many use cases; it's impossible to describe photos in an index-page preamble, once the number of images passes the trivial.

How about a GUI?
Also in principle, a GUI could use widgets to input thumbspage's target folder and console prompts; might do the same for options in the configurations module; and may be able to simply spawn the current script with the results (e.g., with an inputs file and a custom module). Packaging such a GUI as a frozen app or executable would also bundle Python and Pillow, making installs easier, and insulating the program from future changes in either.

This hasn't been pursued, in part because it seems overkill: thumbspage is a utility that likely won't be run on a frequent basis, and its target audience is not technically naive—its users are content creators who either already know about command lines and folders, or are willing to learn enough to run the script. Moreover, some thumbspage customization requires writing code that's beyond the scope of a GUI (see its header and footer inserts); and GUIs, especially the portable kind, have a way of being much more effort than you may think. In short, a GUI seems an unwarranted can of worms that would consume resources better invested elsewhere. On the other hand...

In the end, thumbspage is really about trying to do something useful in the stunningly ad-hoc and convoluted domain that is today's web development. As usual, fork with care. Just because you can save the village, doesn't mean you should.

More Resources

You've reached the end of this guide, but there's more to the thumbspage story:

For more thumbspage documentation
See the archived (and now quite dated) closed issues and developer notes in docetc/more-docs-trimmed.
For thumbspage example sites
Check out the live-demo and example links in the Resources section of this program's web page.
For related image programs
Explore the tagpix photo-organizer script and PyPhoto image-viewer GUI, both available at learning-python.com.

And may all your monkeys be right-side up.

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