Android Deltas Sync

Preface: as of May 2023, the system described on this page has been superseded by the newer PC-Phone USB Sync—a standalone backup/sync app that runs on both Android 8-and-later devices, as well as Windows, macOS, and Linux PCs. Read about and fetch the new app at its separate website, and tap the button below to learn how this app improves on prior solutions.

On Android 11 and later, this new app uses the All files access permission to regain access to both shared storage and removable (e.g., USB) drives. This circumvents the loss of file-path/POSIX access to USB drives in later Androids. Shared storage is still slower in recent Androids, but the new app supports content hosting in faster app-specific storage, and UFS 4.0 chips promise to speed storage in general. As a self-contained app, the new program also eliminates the Termux and Pydroid 3 app dependencies of this and other former solutions, and provides a much more seamless and graphical Android experience.

On PCs, the new program is delivered as a standalone app or executable to avoid extra installs and mesh with the host platform's paradigms. And on every platform, this app is still an all-Python system—despite Android's Java biases. It embeds and uses the portable Mergeall system to process content; codes its GUI in Python with the portable Kivy toolkit; builds apps and executables with the buildozer and PyInstaller tools; and talks to Java with pyjnius only when it must. In fact, this is still largely Mergeall, with a new and improved GUI launcher that also provides access to USB drives on recent Androids.

Like all the earlier Android/PC content-sync solutions worked out at this site over the last five years, the new app is also private by design: its use of USB drives for folder syncs both boosts speed, and ensures that your content remains your property—not someone else's point of control. This app is available as full and trial versions on the Play store for Android, and as free downloads for PCs. Please visit the new app's website for more screenshots, more info, and download links.

Summary:  Sync content folders to Android and more by USB
Version:  1.2, January 6, 2023 (changes)
License:  Provided freely, but with no warranties of any kind
Author:  © M. Lutz (learning-python.com), 2021-2023
Install:  Fetch the download, unzip its code, see ahead
Requires:  Python 3.5 or later, Mergeall 3.3 or later
Runs on: Linux, macOS, Windows, Android

This package was born of frustration with the twin removals of POSIX USB access in Android 11, and microSD-card support in Samsung's flagship phones. Those removals crippled content-processing tools, as covered here, here, and here.

This usage guide leaves the drama behind, and focuses on how to use the work-around automated by this package's scripts to propagate and sync content folders from PCs to phones running Android 11 and later. As we'll see, this work-around requires just USB ports and a portable drive; uses the Mergeall and ziptools systems as nested tools; is partly manual but simple and fast; and can be used to sync PCs and older Androids too.

This work-around also replaces prior solutions, and may be permanent. While the future is unknowable, the Android 11 speed and access limitations we'll remedy here are still present in Androids 12 and 13, the former of which poses additional hurdles of its own. Using Android devices for content storage and other PC roles is an ongoing battle, but it's still worth the effort to many discriminating users.

This doc begins with a short overview, followed by a quick start, in-depth usage details, general notes, and a brief conclusion. If you'd like a headfirst preview, try this package's screenshots, examples, and code.


This package provides Python scripts which:

In typical usage, you'll copy to your phone once, sync whenever you wish to update your phone, and verify or export your phone occasionally when it's useful. The combined effect keeps your content the same on both your PC and phone.

The content which these scripts sync is an entire folder, including all its files and nested subfolders of any depth, and can be any folder you wish to sync. The scripts that make this work are run as pairs on PC and phone, and automate steps that would be tedious and error prone to run manually. In brief, the scripts here:

Ultimately, this system is just a director: it employs Mergeall to create and apply sets of changes; ziptools to bundle those changes for transmission; and you the user to copy those bundles when needed. The combination enables POSIX-based content management by USB on Android 11 and later, and propagates changes between your PC and phone safely and easily. The next section details the process that achieves this.

How the Work-Around Works

From a closer perspective, this system's solution relies on three components:


To sync changes from PC to phone, this system leverages a USB drive known as the proxy because it takes the place of the phone during change detections run on the PC. As long as the proxy's content copy is always the same as the phone's, PC-to-proxy changes double as PC-to-phone changes, and can be computed independently of the phone. The proxy's role partly mimics now-defunct microSD cards, and is similar to an intermediate drive in earlier Mergeall models. Under Android 11, however, the proxy's content copy cannot be merged to the phone directly by USB with Mergeall.


To address this loss of USB access, this system also employs a new Mergeall script, deltas.py. This script detects differences between FROM and TO as usual, but instead of applying FROM changes to TO immediately like a normal sync, it saves the changes separately to a folder, in the same format as Mergeall backups. This allows changes (a.k.a. deltas) to be saved as a unit, copied between devices, and applied to TO later with a -restore run of Mergeall's main mergeall.py. The same batch of changes can be applied this way to both proxy and phone to keep them in sync; because delta sets are almost always very small, these tasks are almost always very quick.


On top of this, this system also ensures that content is zipped and unzipped to evade interoperability perils in filesystems and platforms along the way. The portable ziptools handles the bundling on every device. Depending on the target of content propagations, this can avoid loss of symlinks, permissions, folder modification times (a.k.a. modtimes), and nonportable filenames, all of which may otherwise be silently munged in raw transfers. Zipping also minimizes the role of Android file explorers, which are generally slow, and have even been seen to fail for copies of large unzipped folders.

By combining the proxy's phone forgery, the deltas script's deferred changes, and zipfiles' content protection, this system is able to sync phones despite Android 11's closures. To propagate changes from PC to phone, changes are simply:

  1. Collected by comparing the PC's content copy to the proxy's
  2. Applied to the proxy's copy to make it match the PC's
  3. Zipped for quick and lossless transit and saved on the proxy
  4. Transferred from proxy to phone by USB with a file explorer
  5. And finally unzipped and applied to the phone itself
The net effect breaks the Android 11 spell: it updates the phone for changes on the PC indirectly, without requiring POSIX USB access on the phone, or relying on slow and error-prone networking schemes. As a bonus, both your phone and your proxy drive will automatically serve as backup copies of your PC's content, if you use this system's scripts as intended.

This may sound like a lot of work—and it is, compared to the direct two-merge process before Android 11—but it's still well worth the effort for people who don't want to store their private digital property on clouds, where it can be arbitrarily misused by hosting companies. If you've read this far, that category probably includes you.

How You'll Use the System

Perhaps the best news here is that this package's scripts automate most of the details behind these indirect syncs. In short, you will simply:

  1. Pick a USB drive whose content copy will be used as proxy for your phone
  2. Setup your PC and phone to run Python, Mergeall, and these scripts
  3. Run scripts here to copy content to your proxy and phone initially
  4. Run scripts here to sync changes from PC to phone via proxy
  5. Optionally run scripts here to verify or export on-phone content

Once you're set up, syncs require no manual steps, apart from starting a script on your PC and phone, and copying a single zipfile on your phone when prompted—a process you'll likely find to be just as easy as running Mergeall's GUI on PCs and older Androids.

For an alternative take on this system's operation, see the parallel off-page coverage. Here, the rest of this doc provides a brief reference guide to this process, followed by more-complete details.

Terminology and Scope

(In this doc, boxes like this are used for sidebars, supplements, and updates.)

Throughout this guide and its scripts, "PC" means any macOS, Windows, or Linux computer, but "phone" and "Android device" can be anything. Though initially designed to sync changes from PCs to phones and tablets running Android 11 and later, these scripts can also be used to sync to earlier Androids, other PCs, and any combination of these. As of 1.2, changes can even be backsynced from "phone" to PC with exports, which reverses the flow of changes, and allows you to edit content on your phone itself and propagate the updates to PC and proxy.

Hence, these scripts are more general than may be implied in this doc, and when you see "phone" both here and in the scripts, keep in mind that it's a generic term for the destination of most syncs, and not necessarily a phone at all. There's more on this generality in Scope ahead. That said, this package is likely of more interest to users of Android 11 and later, because it addresses those systems' removal of functionality, and POSIX USB access and microSD cards may still provide additional options on PCs and older Androids. But tech moves on; let's do the same.

Quick Start

In the following, you'll generally run the setup tasks and initial copy just once, repeat the sync steps any time you wish to propagate changes from PC to phone, and verify or export phone content occasionally. See the full install details ahead for specific version requirements and more options. All the software you'll install below is free and open source.

Setup: Choose a Proxy Drive

As a first setup step, dedicate an external USB "proxy" drive to host a content copy that will serve as a stand-in for your phone in later syncs run on your PC. The proxy is used to push changes to (and optionally from) your phone, but also automatically doubles as a backup copy for your PC's content.

The proxy drive must have enough free space to hold your content and more. Specifically, initial copies, verifications, and exports require twice as much space as your content. By contrast, later syncs require just a small increment beyond your content's size, because they store changes only; this increment's size varies per sync. See the complete coverage of space requirements ahead.

For the proxy, any USB storage device and filesystem supported by both your PC and phone will work with this package's scripts. As guidelines, though, portable SSDs (like these) are recommended for both speed and reliability, and the exFAT filesystem is recommended for its larger file sizes, sync-friendly modtimes, and broad availability on Android phones today.

Important: to keep the proxy's content copy in sync, it should be changed only by this system's scripts, else change detection won't work and you may have to rerun an initial copy or run a backsync. In particular, do not run a direct Mergeall between PC and proxy, because this system's scripts won't find any proxy differences to propagate to the phone later (details). Similarly, to keep the phone's content copy in sync, do not change it directly, unless you plan to export it back to your PC and proxy (details).

Setup: Install Python

Next, install the Python programming language, if not already present, to run this package's scripts on both PC and phone. You can find install pointers for PCs here, though it's generally a simple click-and-go. On phones, tap the downloaded APK file to install.

On your PC:

  1. Install the latest Python 3.X from python.org

On your phone:

  1. Install the Termux app from F-Droid (Google Play's app is defunct)
  2. In Termux, install Python 3.X with command pkg install python
  3. In Termux, enable shared storage with command termux-setup-storage
  4. Optional: install the Termux widget per the Termux how-to and additional tips

Setup: Install Mergeall and Scripts

Finally, install this package's scripts and the Mergeall system they use, and configure the paths to your content's top-level folder on your PC, proxy, and phone. The required path edits are described in both the configuration files listed below and the section ahead.

On your PC:

  1. Download Mergeall's source-code package by clicking here, and unzip
  2. Download this script package by clicking here, and unzip
  3. Edit config_pc.py at the top level of the unzipped script package

On your phone:

  1. Download Mergeall's source-code package by clicking here, and unzip
  2. Download this script package by clicking here, and unzip
  3. Edit config_phone.py at the top level of the unzipped script package

You are now ready to run scripts to propagate content and changes per the following steps.

Script Essentials

In the next four sections, the script files named in commands are located at the top level of the unzipped scripts package. They may be run by the commands shown, or by icon clicks on PCs, home-screen widget taps on phones, and more; see ahead for full coverage, especially if you're new to running scripts. Once started, you'll interact with a script in its console window (ahead), and use a file explorer to copy a zipfile on your phone when prompted (ahead).

Important: be sure to run these scripts as pairs, in the sequence shown. In syncs, for example, the phone-side script must be run second, and before the pc-side script is run again. If you don't follow the sequences here, your phone may grow out of sync with your PC, and require a recopy or backsync.

To Copy Content to Your Phone

After setup, you're able to copy and sync your content. Initial copies duplicate the PC's content in full on both proxy and phone. They are generally run just once; later changes are propagated by syncs which are much faster than full copies.

Run the following steps to copy content from PC to phone initially (see the prior sidebar for more on these scripts):

  1. On your PC — attach your proxy drive by USB, and run this command or its file:
    python3 initial-copy-part1-pc.py
  2. On your phone — attach your proxy drive by USB, and run this command or its file:
    python3 initial-copy-part2-phone.py

To Sync Changes to Your Phone

Syncs record just changes made to the PC since the last sync, and propagate them to both proxy and phone. They may be run anytime you wish to make your phone's content match your PC's.

Run the following steps to propagate changes from PC to phone (see above for more on these scripts):

  1. On your PC — attach your proxy drive by USB, and run this command or its file:
    python3 sync-changes-part1-pc.py
  2. On your phone — attach your proxy drive by USB, and run this command or its file:
    python3 sync-changes-part2-phone.py

To Verify Phone Content

Verifications copy the phone's content in full, and compare it to the PC's copy. They are optional, but provide an integrity check which you can run on demand to validate your phone's content.

Run the following steps to verify phone content to PC (see above for more on these scripts):

  1. On your phone — attach your proxy drive by USB, and run this command or its file:
    python3 x-verify-phone-part1-phone.py
  2. On your PC — attach your proxy drive by USB, and run this command or its file:
    python3 x-verify-phone-part2-pc.py

To Export Phone Changes or Content

Exports copy the phone's content in full, and propagate its changes to the PC's and proxy's copies. They are optional, but useful as a backsync after content has been changed on your phone alone, and can also export phone content in full.

Run the following steps to export phone changes to PC and proxy (see above for more on these scripts):

  1. On your phone — attach your proxy drive by USB, and run this command or its file:
    python3 x-export-phone-part1-phone.py
  2. On your PC — attach your proxy drive by USB, and run this command or its file:
    python3 x-export-phone-part2-pc.py

Usage Details

This section goes into more detail about the steps outlined in the preceding Quick Start. It describes setup tasks and interaction, and covers enough Android and script-launch fundamentals to get you started.

Installs and Versions

This system's scripts work on most macOS, Windows, and Linux PCs in use today. On phones, they work on all Androids 8 (Oreo) and later, which includes every Android since 2017 (earlier versions didn't support file modtime comparisons). At present, the scripts have been used successfully and most often on Androids 10 through 13 (including 12L), but are expected to work on 14 and later too. For recent info, see the coverage ahead for Androids 12 and 13, as well as the Androids log.

To run these scripts, you'll install this package, Mergeall, and Python, per the following notes:

To unzip packages after you've downloaded them, see your PC and Android file explorers for initial options. You can use ziptools to unzip packages portably, safely, and quickly, but not until you've unzipped it.

Android Python Apps

On Android, you'll use this system's phone-side scripts in an app that runs Python code. While Termux is recommended for this role and covered most throughout this doc, you do not need to install it if you prefer to use another Python-friendly app. Pydroid 3, for instance, can be used to run this package's scripts on your phone too. The following is a rundown of tradeoffs and usage essentials for these common host apps on Android:


Pydroid 3

For more on Termux and other on-phone options, watch for upcoming launch details, including their update on the new Termux how-to. First, the following updates box covers extra topics related to running this package's scripts.

Mergeall 3.3+ Required

As of December 2021, this package's minimum Mergeall version requirement has been bumped up from 3.2 to 3.3. Mergeall 3.2 has the requisite deltas.py and ziptools, but 3.3 adds Unicode normalization for filename matches, which is most important when applying delta sets like those leveraged by this package. Without the 3.3 enhancement, some rare use cases may generate duplicates for items whose names are the same but use different Unicode code points on source and destination devices.

For more details, see Mergeall's coverage here and here. Mergeall 3.3's -quiet flag is also now used everywhere here to silence normalization messages; grep for this flag in scripts if it ever proves undesirable.

Termux Shims Wakelock

As of fall 2021, the "shim" scripts provided for use with the Termux home-screen widget on your phone now automatically acquire and release an Android partial wakelock around script runs, to ensure that the scripts continue even if your phone screen goes blank due to timeout or power-button press (on phones that still respect the wakelock, at least). Hence, you don't have to manage the lock manually in Notifications. See the shims and their README here for more info, and see ahead for more on the Termux widget; it's optional but recommended for on-phone scripts.

Update: Backgrounding Shim Calls for Android 12+

In version 1.2, Termux-widget shims now run their calls to acquire and release the wakelock in the background, to avoid pauses on some Android devices. A shell & is used to allow the rest of the shims' code to continue in parallel.

When run normally, these calls each return immediately on an Android-10 Note20 Ultra; take 2–3 seconds on an Android-12 Fold3; and can hang for an unreasonable 10 seconds on an Android-12L Fold4 when run from a widget (only). Running them in the background locks and unlocks correctly, without making shims or users wait. To disable automatic locking, change variable auto_wakelock in the shims and lock manually in Notifications (environment variables don't work because widgets run in a limited context).

Nit: it's possible to subvert 1.2's wakelock backgrounding by starting and stopping multiple widget shims in rapid succession (their lock and unlock calls may overlap arbitrarily); and it's easy to trounce auto-locking in general by running multiple shims at the same time (they share a single app-global lock). So don't do that. Those are not normal—or even valid—use cases, and, barring a Termux fix, the only alternatives today are manual locking, or two 10-second pauses on some phones. 1.2's automatic locks work the best they can, and do well in realistic usage.

For more info and status, see the GitHub bug report filed by this project. As noted there, phone restarts reduce the wait times, but only temporarily; 12L's 10-second pauses come back in full shortly thereafter. As also noted there and ahead, Android 13 (and/or Samsung's UI 5) later reduced the wait times to Android-12 levels, but not enough to make backgrounding optional, and Termux upgrades didn't help. Related mod: Version 1.2 also automates shim setup tasks with helper scripts; see 1.2's release notes.

Android 12’s “Phantom” Killer versus Termux

As noted earlier, Android 12 has not lifted the Android 11 constraints that motivated this package. In addition, Termux, and possibly Pydroid 3, may require extra steps to work around the new and draconian "phantom" process killer in Android 12 and later. In brief, Android 12 bizarrely starts killing child processes after a hard limit of 32 has been reached. This limit is for the entire phone, not per app. Because nearly everything Termux does relies on child processes, its shell and the programs it runs—including the Python scripts in this package—may be terminated arbitrarily by the culling. In the context of content syncs, this is obviously a Bad Thing.

That said, the risk of this peril may vary by phone and usage. A Z Fold3 upgraded to Android 12 and used to test this package, for example, has not triggered a single Termux kill in roughly one year of continuous use, though it also does not run antivirus software, X11 Windows managers, or similarly process-intensive tools. If process culling may be an issue for you, you can avoid the kills with adb commands in Android 12, or a new Developer-options setting to appear in Android 12L and 13. Specifically, the following stops the reaping in Android 12 (see also this search and the coverage ahead if you're new to adb, and the update below for a better alternative in 12L):

adb shell "/system/bin/device_config set_sync_disabled_for_tests persistent; \
           /system/bin/device_config put activity_manager max_phantom_processes 2147483647"
And the following Developer feature flag is scheduled to appear soon in Android 12L and 13 to subvert the issue altogether; this will presumably show up as a toggle or feature flag in the "Developer options" menu of Settings (the one activated by the silly tapping on the phone's build number), and may even pop up in some Android 12 updates, though all such prospects naturally depend on phone vendors:

For the full story on this still-evolving issue and its work-arounds, see the off-site pages here, here, here, and here. The above fixes draw from these sources, especially the second, which also goes into more detail than this doc can about risks of the first adb command, including possible reboot loops on upgrades. In an ideal world, software would not be silently changed in ways that cripple devices and negatively impact millions of users. In the world of Android, it's a norm; a hastily coded work-around—though not a reversal—will have to do as a happy ending.

Update: Disabling Process Kills in Android 12L+

In fall 2022, Android 12L did not ship with the new Developer setting as promised, but it does allow disabling the phantom-process killer with the following adb command, run on a connected device as usual:

adb shell settings put global settings_enable_monitor_phantom_procs false

This command's effect persists after being run just once, and supersedes others recommended for Android 12 earlier. As an example, 2022's Samsung Fold4 ships with an Android 12L that has neither feature flag nor Developer toggle for this, but the above command reportedly suffices (e.g., reddit; as before, this package's own Fold4 test machine has yet to see a single process kill, so this command has not been required or used).

A Developer toggle is still supposed to appear in Android 13 at this writing, but vendor support may vary, this story line changes regularly, and user processes really shouldn't be silently killed in the first place. The upside here is that Termux may be inconvenienced, but is not broken. The process-killer's impact varies per phone usage; may not affect you at all; and can be mitigated with either adb commands available today, or a switch that will hopefully show up somewhere soon on a phone near you.

Postscript: at the start of 2023, Android 13 arrived to a Pixel 4a and Galaxy Fold4 in this package's testing stable without the Developer toggle. Use the preceding adb command instead if your Termux processes are killed on phones like these.

Android 13 Locks Down App-Specific Storage?

Per early reports, Android 13 may lock down app-specific storage, such that is cannot be accessed by file-explorer apps. See the full coverage in Android Storage ahead. This may wind up being a non-issue, and there are simple work-arounds for this package's users. But Android releases have now become an annual rite of access closures—and developer cringes.

Space Requirements

The initial-copy scripts here temporarily require twice as much total space as your content collection itself on your PC, proxy drive, and phone. To copy a 100G content collection, for example, you'll need 200G on all three devices during the copy, but just 100G later. This stems from the scripts' use of zipfiles to avoid interoperability issues; an extra zipfile copy is passed between devices to avoid data loss.

If your devices don't have enough space, see the later notes on proxy and phone space for manual work-arounds. In short, you can emulate this system's steps with command lines, or skip some altogether. PCs require twice content's size during initial copies too, but are less likely to be as tight on space as phones and proxies.

By contrast, the sync-changes scripts here require only enough extra space for one delta set, which is normally very small and transfers quickly. In other words, once you get an initial copy onto your phone one way or another, later syncs with this system's scripts are unlikely to run into space limits.

In all cases, this system's scripts automatically delete both zipfiles and folders on PC and phone no longer needed after script completion. This includes temporary content and deltas folders, as well as their zipfiles. Exception: zipfiles for both the initial copy and deltas set on the proxy drive cannot be automatically deleted, because these scripts cannot access USB on the phone. You can freely delete these zipfiles from your proxy to save space, after their content has been propagated to your phone. Caution: don't delete the proxy's content-copy folder; it's needed for later syncs.

If your proxy drive is formatted as FAT32, you may also bump up against that filesystem's 4G file-size limit during initial copies of content; consider reformatting your proxy drive to use exFAT if it's supported by your phone or an add-on app, and see ahead for more details.

Space Requirements in 1.1 Verifies

When used, the 1.1 verify scripts described ahead also temporarily require twice the space of your content on your phone, proxy drive, and PC, for an extra content zip on the first two, and an extra content unzip on the PC. They're also a sparingly used special case and fully optional.

Space Requirements in 1.2 Exports

As of 1.2, the same rule applies to the new export scripts described ahead: your phone, proxy, and PC must all have enough space to hold an extra copy of your content. This is an unavoidable consequence of Android 11's removal of POSIX USB access.

Editing Configs

Before you can use this package, you must edit its config files to specify paths to your content's top-level folders on your PC, proxy, and phone. These settings are usually made just once, and used by all of this system's scripts. You'll also need to choose an Android storage type to host content on your phone, per the section that follows. First, this section covers how to edit configs in general.

To configure this system, edit both:

Both of these files reside at the top-level of the unzipped install package. Edit them according to the instructions provided in their top-of-file documentation strings. In both, you'll set folder paths to code and content, and optionally change run options. See these files' documentation and "#" comments for complete details, and the examples folder for config-file examples to emulate.

Config Pointers

Config-file settings are straightforward and are checked for errors before scripts start, but here are a few pointers on this step to help you avoid mistakes:

The config files are also technically Python code, but their settings are few and simple. For readers new to this language, here are five essential syntax tips:

The following list provides additional details and advanced usage tips for config files:

Backslashes in Windows paths
Python normally treats a backslash (\) in strings as the start of an escape sequence (e.g., \n means line-break). Since this character is also used as a path separator on Windows, it requires special handling in Python strings: the r'...' prevents Python from treating \ as an escape character; doubling up with \\ is an escape that stands for one backslash; and forward slashes (/) work in place of backslashes in Windows paths too.

See the Windows example for all three codings in action. Forward slashes in Unix paths require no such special handling. Embedded quotes must be escaped everywhere (e.g., '..\'..') but are enormously rare.

Home and environment path expansions
As a convenience, this system automatically expands home-folder and environment-variable references in your path settings like a Unix shell. For example, ~ in a path string is replaced with the path to the home folder associated with your user account, and $var and ${var} (plus %var% on Windows) are replaced with the value of the environment variable named var.

This works on all platforms: a leading ~ is replaced with /Users/you on macOS, C:\Users\you on Windows, /home/you on Linux, and /data/data/com.termux/files/home on Android Termux. Variable replacement is handy for Linux proxy-drive paths that depend on your user name: use /media/$USER/drivename. For finer details, see the underlying Python tools here and here, and the examples here, here, and here.

Windows drive-relative paths
On Windows, paths should generally include a backslash after the drive letter to make them absolute (e.g., 'D:\\', using the Python doubled-up escape scheme described above). If the slash is omitted (e.g., 'D:'), the path is relative to the current working directory on the named drive, which is not what you'll usually want. For more background on this, see this Microsoft article. Scripts here don't automatically add a \ if omitted, because this would preclude drive-relative paths in contexts where they are useful.
Zipfiles are stored in proxy roots
Finally, you can locate the proxy drive's content copy anywhere on the proxy drive, but the zipfiles to be copied to or from the phone are always stored in the proxy drive's root folder (i.e., unnested) for easy access. In more tangible terms, this means that the PC config file's TO setting can be any arbitrarily nested proxy folder; its drive-root prefix is automatically determined and used for zipfile saves.

See also the "z-pc-froms" captures in the screenshots gallery starting here for more path examples. Coverage for specific configuration settings appears ahead in this guide, in the topics with which settings are associated; search in your browser to find more about a given setting here.

Tip: you can sync multiple folders separately by editing the config files before each run, but this may grow tedious. To avoid frequent edits, store all your synched content in a single folder, and use this folder's paths in your configs; because this package syncs subfolders nested arbitrarily deep in the folder root, you can structure a single content folder as richly as you wish.

Config Backup Copies in 1.2

Beginning with release 1.2, you can find the original versions of the PC and phone config files shipped, in the _etc folder configs-originals. They're stored there to serve as a restart fallback, in case your edits go awry.

Android Storage

When editing the phone configuration file, you'll need to choose Android storage folders—and hence storage types—for both your content itself, and temporary zipfiles copied to and from your phone. The zipfiles folder should generally be as fast as possible to speed scripts, but need not support anything but file-explorer copies from/to USB. This section focuses on the content folder, because the access it supports will determine the ways in which you can use your on-phone content.

In brief, you can choose from three storage types, and corresponding folder paths, for both content and zipfiles:

Shared storage
At /sdcard (or /storage/emulated/0)

This storage type can be both viewed and changed by most apps, and is never automatically deleted on app uninstall; but it may run much slower than the other two storages in Android 11—perhaps 2X to 100X slower, depending on usage. This space generally includes everything under its path that's not part of the next bullet.

App-specific storage
At /sdcard/Android/data/appname

This storage type is quicker, and can be viewed and changed by many apps; but it is unsupported by some apps, and may be automatically deleted when the owning app is uninstalled. This space looks like it's part of shared storage, but it's implemented (i.e., mounted) differently.

App-private storage
At /data/data/appname

This storage type is also fast, and supports Unix metadata best; but it can be accessed normally by the owning app only, and may also be automatically deleted when the owning app is uninstalled. This space's sole-app role may disqualify it for general content stores, but see the SAF update ahead for possible exceptions.

Three disclaimers up front. First, due to Android fragmentation, these categories' paths may vary across versions and vendors (e.g., /sdcard also goes by /storage/emulated/0); for a deeper dive, try the pathname primer. Second, the appname part in these paths varies too; it's com.termux for Termux, and ru.iiec.pydroid3 for Pydroid 3. And third, due to a now-ancient SD-card legacy, some Android docs confusingly call app-specific "external" and app-private "internal," but both usually reside in your phone today; they're just managed differently.

Also note that everything in this section and doc applies to unrooted devices; while phone rooting may loosen some constraints, it's not possible on many phones, and not desirable for many users (see this package's genesis for more on rooting). Moreover, this doc deals only with unremovable (internal) storage, because it's the only on-phone option on the Fold3; for the similar rules on removable (external) storage like microSD cards, see the older package's docs or test on your device.

Storage Tradeoffs

All that small print aside, the choice of storage host for your content pivots on four dimensions, some of which may be more important for your use cases than others:

Android storage is more complex than that on PCs, and reflects the platform's meandering march towards tighter security. For this package's purposes, the Android app you'll use to run the phone-side scripts can generally store content in both shared storage and its own specific and private storages, but accessing the content later is more constrained. You'll need to choose a medium that supports all the ways you wish to access your content.

In the plus column, most Android 11 file explorers and the apps they open allow you to view and change your content in both shared storage and any app's app-specific storage. This may require one or more permission dialogs, but is broadly supported. Less positively, app-specific storage may be a read-only resource if Unix permissions are propagated, and app-specific support varies by explorer and viewer (e.g., Fx can currently explore shared but not app-specific storage on 11, and Music Folder Player bears the same limitation for audio files).

More rigidly, Termux and Python apps cannot access other apps' app-specific storage in Android 11 today, so your choice of content host may be binding. If you run this system's scripts in Termux, for example, you can store content in either shared storage or Termux's own app-specific storage, but programs run in Pydroid 3 won't be able to access the latter. Conversely, because Pydroid 3 is required to run tkinter GUIs, their code and data must be in either shared storage or Pydroid 3's app-specific storage, but Termux is locked out of the latter.

For the gritty details on Python-related apps, see the captured results for Pydroid 3 and Termux. As shown, these apps today can access shared storage and their own app storages only, though in general this depends on app permission choices, the version of Android that apps target, and the ever-changing rules of Android itself. Special case: both Termux and Pydroid 3 can run scripts saved in Download, but this is technically part of shared storage—and subject to the next section's trade-off.

Despite the app-specific constraints of the prior section, shared storage may still not be the best choice for larger content collections, because it has been throttled to the point of being almost impractically slow for some use cases in Android 11. The slowdowns vary per task, but are often noticeable, and sometimes glaring.

As an example, unzipping and deleting a 200G/180k-file collection in app-specific storage with Termux took just 18 and 10 minutes, respectively; but the same tasks in shared storage checked in at an arguably unusable 1 hour and 4 hours, respectively (and the shared-storage delete failed altogether in two file-explorer apps). Indeed, large-folder deletion is so slow in Android 11's shared storage that a phone reset may be quicker.

That said, not all shared-storage operations are so slow, and typical content access may be adequately fast for your purposes. Moreover, this package's use of delta sets naturally speeds on-phone syncs, because it avoids full on-phone content comparisons: smaller delta-set compares offset slower shared-storage access.

In fact, per practice so far, media access in shared storage is generally quick, and the phone portion of syncs for numerous changes with shared storage usually takes no more than 2 minutes—including time for the manual zipfile copy. Still, your syncs may naturally vary, and auto-deletion prunes of large __bkp__ folders in shared storage can be so slow that they seem to hang. Prune sloth was eventually sidestepped with config presets described ahead, but check script status in logfiles if pauses are long, and use app storages if waits are intolerable—unless, that is, the next section's trade-off outweighs the delays.

Only shared storage is guaranteed to survive app uninstalls. Content you place in both app-specific and app-private storage is by default automatically deleted when the owning app is uninstalled. Apps can opt to avoid these auto-deletions with a prompt in recent Androids, but most apps do not use this new feature. If you store your content in Termux's app-specific storage, for example, it will be silently removed when Termux is uninstalled. The same goes for Pydroid 3.

Though irrelevant to temporary zipfiles, this risk alone is nearly enough to disqualify app storages for content. It's also not entirely abstract: the Mergeall dev team itself accidentally erased gigabytes of content this way while setting up apps to test Termux's widget. While that's not exactly a minor downside, uninstalls are naturally up to you, and the subtler trade-offs of the next and final section may decide the game for some.

Beyond all this, power users should also note that support for metadata and filenames varies across Android 11 storage types, and even per vendor. Per ziptools research, symlinks are supported only in app-private storage, and morph to stub files elsewhere; nonportable filenames must be changed to be saved in Android 11 shared storage alone, and are skipped if not; and Unix permissions support varies by vendor but is always absent in shared storage. If you must care, see the fine points in ziptools' coverage here and here, its demos here and here, and this package's permissions and filename policies ahead.

Special case: happily, shared storage does not emulate FAT32's "local time" for file modtimes, and hence is immune to FAT32 skew on DST rollovers and time-zone changes described here. This matters because modtimes in on-phone storage must still differ with those in a deltas zip for changes to be applied. On multiple devices, shared, app-specific, and app-private modtimes all agreed with each other and PCs after changing dates and zones—and still did after an actual DST rollover. If modtimes ever skew anyhow in some future Android, run the fixer script on deltas, or give app storages a second look.

Guidelines and Configs

So where should you put your stuff on your phone, then? There is no single answer to this question, and your choices may need to evolve with Android over time.

But in general, shared storage's cross-app accessibility make it the better choice for content-creation tasks such as programming, and its permanence is a clear win for storing valued content. App-specific storage, however, remains both a faster option for temporary zipfile folders and a viable contender for content, and app-private storage can still take the title in single-app roles or when accessed by specially equipped explorers per the upcoming update; just don't delete the app!

As guidelines—and barring a future Android fix for shared-storage throttling which would make that storage a clearer winner:

Footnotes: other combinations are possible, though some are less plausible than others. An all-app-private scheme works too, for example, but suffers from content-access limitations detailed in the first update ahead. Storage choices are also subject to Android mutation. Android 13, for instance, may lock explorers out of app-specific storage per the second update ahead; and even shared storage access relies on Python-friendly apps retaining opt-outs of storage closures in Android 11 and later (backdated API levels and temporary reprieves suffice, but are tenuous and limiting). The schemes above, however, best jive with reality today.

For more on how all this translates to this package's settings, be sure to also consult the docstring at the top of the phone config file. Here, the following updates box explores advanced but useful storage-related topics.

Using Termux App-Private Storage in File Explorers

In 2022, it's still true that app-private storage is inaccessible to other apps per Android's normal permission rules. Because Android file-explorer apps are locked out from accessing this storage type too, its support for both zipfile copies and content storage in this package is limited.

Nevertheless, Android rules regularly come with exceptions. Today, a handful of Android file explorers do allow you to access Termux's app-private home folder from outside the Termux app, by using Termux's Storage Access Framework (SAF) interface instead of traditional POSIX techniques. This requires an SAF-capable explorer and is not entirely seamless, but provides fully functional access. SAF-capable explorers also support USB-drive access, which makes app-private storage a candidate for zipfiles, content, or both—the FROM and TO in the phone config file.

Details: this somewhat new SAF access mode is described tersely on Termux's wiki near the bottom of this page. In testing on Android 12L, four out of eleven file-explorer apps support this SAF mode— Fx, stock AOSP (a.k.a. Files), Material Files, and MiXplorer. All four provide full read/write/open utility for content stored in the Termux home folder (known as ~ in the shell, and /data/data/com.termux/files/home formally). All four also support USB drive access, which may similarly use SAF if the drive is not mounted for POSIX access.

Per the Termux wiki, the AOSP explorer can even be started automatically from inside Termux by command line; this could be run by this package's scripts to automate explorer launches, but dictates explorer choice too rigidly:

am start -a android.intent.action.VIEW -d "content://com.android.externalstorage.documents/root/primary"

To dig deeper into app-private usage with this package, see the new demo, as well as the new file-explorer screenshots with notes starting here. Disclaimer: it was impossible to test all Android explorers, so be sure to test others' SAF support as desired.

It's important to keep in mind that this isn't normal (POSIX) file access—SAF is a proprietary Android-only model, that provides a sort of virtual folder accessed by content:// URIs which bypasses Android permissions—but the ruse suffices for most uses. It's also important to note that this SAF-based access mode comes with limits, tradeoffs and glitches:

Termux only
The SAF/app-private mode applies only when using Termux to run this package's on-phone scripts. For instance, there is no known SAF access to Pydroid 3's home folder today, so this mode creates a single-app dependency that does not otherwise exist.
Home folder only
The SAF exposes only the Termux home folder. You can created arbitrarily nested subfolder trees there, but other Termux app-private folders are not accessible. This may not be a deal breaker, but seems an artificial constraint.
File explorers
You'll have to settle for one of the supporting Android file-explorers apps (e.g., the four listed above). This may be trivial if app-private storage is used only for occasional zipfile copies, but matters more if content is stored there too, especially given the next item.
Content limitations
Apps launched to open Termux home-folder content may have limited functionality. The QuickEdit+ app, for instance, could not save app-private text files when opened by the Fx explorer, and could not open them at all when launched by MiXplorer. Other document handlers (e.g., Office) have similar issues. This varies by explorer and app, but is a significant downside unique to the SAF/app-private scheme, made worse by its narrow explorer options.

As another example, there is only one way to view a local web page in app-private storage, among the four SAF-capable explorers and four browsers tested. MiXplorer launching Firefox works well by spawning a local web server, but the support for local web-page views in non-SAF browsers like Cx and Solid is absent in all other SAF options tested. SAF explorers impose additional constraints (e.g., home-screen folder shortcuts) we'll skip here for space.

In short, you should expect some limits when accessing content in app-private storage using SAF-capable explorers. Most of these limits don't apply to occasional zipfile copies, and app-private can work well for this package's zipfiles folder—the FROM in the phone config file. For content at TO, though, this storage type is difficult to recommend.

SAF glitches
And last but far from least, restarts were required to fix spectacular failures in explorer apps after SAF-based storages were added. These included copy errors and hangs, and wholly inoperable UIs; though temporary, they call the SAF/app-private model into question. Copying a zipfile from USB to Termux's home with a supporting file-explorer app does work, but requires more patience than it probably should.

All that said, being able to access Termux's home folder outside the Termux app makes this app-private storage much more useful than it would be if it was limited to Termux alone. App-private storage will still be silently removed on Termux uninstall (you've already been warned!), but shares app-specific storage's speed, and betters it on Unix metadata support; see above for more on its tradeoffs.

Alternative: though more complex, it's also possible to use Termux's app-private storage in an all-Termux environment which runs X-Windows GUI file explorers and other tools. See the first-level details here, and more in the next update. This won't work for zipfile copies because Termux provides no USB access (that's the genesis of this package, after all), but it might suffice for content. This scheme's content-usage options also seem likely to be more limited than the universe of Android apps, though your needs may vary.

Segue: neither MTP nor adb have access to app-private storage, so they won't help with this update's mission, but they may play a role in that of the next—which also explains what they are.

Android 13 Hides App-Specific Storage from File Explorers?

Per early reports in 2022, Android 13 may try to lock down the app-specific /sdcard/Android/data folder described above, such that it can no longer be accessed by Android file-explorer apps. This affects this package only if you use app-specific storage for content or zipfiles, and is preliminary and to-be-verified info which should be taken with the usual grain of salt.

But per the buzz, the only reason app-specific storage was accessible to file explorers at all since Android 11 was a loophole (really, bug) that Android (really Google) has now opted to close—despite valid use cases, user outcry, and the fact that users have already granted these apps All-files-access permission. This matters here because app-specific storage is faster than shared storage and more broadly accessible than app-private storage, but it cannot be used even for temporary zipfile copies if it's off-limits to file explorers.

Still, there are also early reports that file explorers may have already found other ways to provide this access in Android 13 (yes, with another loophole), so this may wind up being a non-issue—as was the case for multiple levels of access in 11 (spoiler: see the update ahead). But if the closure ever becomes permanent, there are multiple alternatives for running this package on your phone, some of which call out this package's choice points in general. Here are the options, ordered by simplest and most suggested first:

Use shared storage, for both content and zipfiles
Though shared storage is slower today, this may not matter for your usage, and shared storage may become much more practical with the arrival of UFS 4 chips in 2023 and their purported 2X speed boost. This is the easiest solution on this list, and generally recommended if it works for you. See above for this scheme's config-file coding.
Use app-private storage for zipfiles, and SAF explorers for copies
This option was detailed in the preceding update. In brief, it requires an Android file-explorer app that supports Termux's SAF interface to your home folder, and comes with the speed plus and longevity minus of app-specific folders, but supports metadata better and access worse. App-private works for both content storage and zipfile copies, but imposes limits on content access, and is not generally recommended for that role.

Using app-private for just zipfiles, however, is a viable work-around to app-specific demise. This role still relies on SAF access, but you would need to use supporting Android file explorers for occasional zipfile copies only, and hence would avoid this scheme's tradeoffs for content. See above for config-file code that implements this hybrid mode.

Use app-specific storage for zipfiles, and MTP for copies
MTP provides GUI-based access to your phone's internal storage when the phone is attached to a PC by USB. For a quick intro, see the Linux, macOS, and Windows screenshots and notes starting here. Windows support is automatic; the web has more on macOS and Linux setup.

MTP is not without hiccups, and doesn't help with using content on your phone itself. But assuming it can still access app-specific storage in future Androids, it's a simple way to copy zipfiles to/from your phone, and provides an alternative to Android file-explorer apps in this role. The USB proxy drive need only be used on the PC in this mode.

In fact, MTP might be used instead of Android explorers for zip copies in general, and this may render zip copies on USB drives unnecessary. This mode was rejected early by this project, because MTP has weak support outside Windows; shows disturbing glitches on some platforms; doesn't provide access to app-private storage on unrooted phones; won't help for syncing a deltas set to another PC; and can be noticeably slower than Android explorer copies.

More fundamentally, MTP seems a lot more to ask of casual users than on-phone apps. While it may suffice as a work-around for Android closures, this package's recommended usage was chosen for portability, reliability, and ease. Android explorers are still advised—while they last.

Use app-specific storage for zipfiles, and adb for copies
adb provides a command-line interface to your phone's internal storage. For a quick adb demo, see the screenshot. Its commands are run from an attached PC, and aren't any help for on-phone content use.

Assuming adb retains its app-specific access, though, its push and pull commands would work for zipfile copies just as well as MTP, and provide another way to perform this task without Android explorers. Also like MTP, adb would not require access to USB on Android: simply copy zips directly from/to the proxy drive attached to the PC.

Among its downsides, adb, like MTP, doesn't normally have access to app-private folders, so it applies to app-specific and shared storages only (see the demo). Most prominently, though, adb commands are even further above the pay grade of casual users than MTP. This likely disqualifies it as a general work-around, but your pay grade may vary.

Use app-specific storage, and the AOSP file explorer for access
AOSP (a.k.a. Files) today provides just read-only access to app-specific storage—well, apart from a New-window + split-screen + drag-and-drop trick that may not be long for this security-obsessed Android world. Unless this improves in 13, AOSP likely won't help for editing content in, or copying zipfiles to, app-specific storage; but it may provide a way to view content there once it gets onto your phone.
Use app-private storage, in an all-Termux GUI environment
This setup may provide file explorers and more in the context of an X-Window GUI, and may work for accessing app-private content, but not for copying this package's zipfiles there: again, Termux has no USB access. It's also not for casual users (and even some wizards), and you'll need to evaluate its functional coverage for your content.
Or simply don't upgrade to Android 13
This is generally possible (for an example with links, see Conclusions here), but you'll miss out on future hardware and software improvements (including upcoming UFS 4 storage and 200MP cameras). Given Android's mushrooming track record of ignoring its less-naive users, you also may not care.

While this Android 13 change looks at first glance as potentially dire as Android 11's closure of POSIX USB access and Android 12's "phantom" process killer, app-specific storage already had access and longevity issues that made it a weak choice for content; file explorers seem likely to come to the rescue again; there are already simple work-arounds in the list above; and Android's future is about as unpredictable as it can be, so this will for now have to remain a "stay tuned."

Update: Explorers Save the Day in Android 13

At the start of 2023, roughly half of the ten Android file-explorer apps tested on a Pixel and Fold4 do provide access to /sdcard/Android/data/appname app-specific folders on Android 13. To get around 13's lockdown of the data folder, these explorers simply list this folder's contents and launch the permissions dialog one level lower—for the target app's subfolder, appname. For example, selecting Termux's com.termux subfolder and granting access provides the same utility as before.

Hence, you can still use app-specific storage with this package on Android 13 for zipfiles, content, or both. You must use a file explorer that supports app-specific access on this Android, but Cx, MiXplorer, Total Commander, and others do already, and more explorers will likely do the same shortly. The non-app-specific alternatives listed above—shared for all, app private for zips, and the rest—work on 13 too, but are not required there.

At least that's the verdict for Android 13. The explorers' work-around of pushing the permissions dialog to an app subfolder relies on a coding loophole, and seems at odds with Android's crippling, and arguably totalitarian, security dogma. Whether the loophole survives in Android 14+ remains TBD, and the alternatives above remain fallbacks for a more-closed possible future.

Curiosity: per user feedback, the Solid explorer supports app-specific folders in Android 13 too—if you simply make a bookmark to them on 12 before upgrading to 13. Alas, Android's app-specific lockdown seems about as well thought out as a Death Star that can be laid low by a single hit to an exhaust vent...

Also on 13: Android 13 still has the shared-storage-sloth and USB-access issues that first cropped up on 11; see the Fold4's results. In the plus column, 12L's 10-second wakelock delays seem to have been cut to 3–4 seconds on 13, though that still warrants backgrounding to avoid pauses.

Rare Unicode-Variants Android Bug—and Fix

Per findings of the underlying Mergeall system, shared storage in Android 11 is also sometimes unable to store files having non-ASCII Unicode filenames recorded in the composed (e.g., NFC) code-point format. This is a complex issue, whose basis is covered by Mergeall 3.3's new module and release note. It also appears to be a bug in Android 11 shared storage of unclear scope: it does not occur in app-specific storage; was isolated on just one Samsung device; may occur only after storing multiple name forms; and has not produced any reports of impacted use cases.

But if your non-ASCII filenames fail in copies or syncs to shared storage, see the included converter script for a work-around and more info on the bug. This script is not required for Mergeall 3.3's automatic name normalization noted earlier, and may be a temporary measure. Between this bug, another involving nonportably named folders, and its egregious deletion sloth described above, Android 11 shared storage seems prime for repairs.

Launching Scripts

You can run this system's scripts by typing command lines which name them in consoles (a.k.a. terminals), or by running their files directly with icon clicks, shortcuts, and IDEs (edit/run GUIs). IDEs work because these scripts are coded in Python, and icon clicks and shortcuts work because the scripts are, for ease of use, configured by settings in files you'll generally edit once, not by command-line arguments passed on each run. Here are the basics of each of these run modes:

Command lines
To run by command line, type the Quick Start's Python commands: In some of these, you may be able to omit the commands' "python3" or may have to use "python" instead, and in basic Windows consoles you should use "py -3" instead of "python3." Try "python3" first, and the others as needed. You can also run the scripts' files directly and skip the "python3" in both Unix on PCs and Termux on phones, by giving them executable permissions with a chmod +x script.py command, and ensuring that they are on your system search path (or using ./script.py to skip the search).

Command-line novices tip: depending on where you unzipped this package, its scripts may not be in the folder you start at in your console tool. If the scripts are elsewhere, either add their location's path to the front of their names in the commands above (e.g., python3 path/script.py), or simply cd path to go to their folder before running commands. path will likely be /sdcard/Download/android-deltas-sync on your phone, and similar on PCs.

Icon clicks
On most platforms, you can also run the PC-side scripts by simply clicking (or tapping) their filename icons in a file explorer, without having to open a console and type a command line. On Windows, for instance, a click (or tap) runs a Python script, and the script ensures that the console window opened for the run endures after script exit so you can see its output; press enter/return to dismiss it. You can also force a script's console to stay open until a key press with the ForceKeyToClose config, but this is automatic for Windows clicks.

macOS and Linux run Python files by clicks too; see their file explorers for tips, or simply click a Python file to try. In brief: on macOS, right click a file in Finder and pick Get Info to associate a Python opener program globally, and do the same to access a file's Properties and associate openers in Nautilus (a.k.a. Files) on Linux.

Python IDEs
Thanks to their later Python translation, you can also run this system's scripts directly and without a command line from most Python IDEs, including IDLE and PyEdit on PCs, and Pydroid 3 and QPython on Android. Open a script's source file in your IDE and run it there per your IDE's normal actions. This really isn't any easier than running a command line in a console if you have to navigate to the file first, but the next section's pointers can make both options quicker.
You can save time with UI shortcuts that run scripts immediately or open them in the prior bullet's IDEs. Shortcuts of some form are available on every platform on which this system runs. PCs support desktop shortcuts broadly, and Android supports home-screen shortcuts in multiple flavors. On PCs, for example, paste desktop shortcuts on Windows, drag aliases to the desktop on macOS, and see pointers here for techniques on Linux. Depending on your filename associations, scripts either open in IDEs or run in a single click.

On Android, you can use a file explorer to make home-screen links that open phone-side scripts in an IDE app, ready to run in just two taps. For instance, the Total Commander app can make such links to open scripts in Pydroid 3 on all Androids (but be sure to unclick its "Parameters: content://url" checkbox in later Androids), and other explorer/IDE combos may offer similar options. See Pydroid 3 shortcuts at work in screenshots here, here, and here.

Termux widget
Also on Android, a Termux add-on provides a home-screen widget which can run a Python console script like those in this package in a single tap. For a quick sampler, see the Termux widget in action in screenshots here, here, and here; see its custom-icon support here and here; and get the widget on F-Droid (preferred) or Google Play after installing Termux itself.

Because this widget is so handy, this system's phone-side scripts support it with an absolute path in their shebang (#!) lines, along with a ForceKeyToClose config setting to require a key press before the widget erases the console (like Windows icon clicks). If the shebang fails in other Android apps, edit scripts to use the line just below it, or simply use an explicit "python3" in console commands.

Better yet, use the Termux-widget shim scripts included in this package to run its scripts easily, without having to type command lines, copy the main scripts to the widget's folder, change the prior paragraph's config, or manually acquire and release the wakelock. Simply copy the shims to your ~/.shortcuts folder in Termux, edit their runee paths if needed, and launch scripts by taps in the widget. For full usage details on the widget and shim scripts, see the README and the update at the end of this section.

Constraint: shortcut or not, it doesn't help to open this system's scripts in an IDE app on your phone, unless you host your content in storage which that app can access. As we saw earlier, this means either slow shared storage or that app's own specific or private storage, and the choice can limit scope in Android 11. You can't use Pydroid 3 to open scripts in Termux's app-specific storage—and vice versa. This is a catch-22 inherent in Android 11, and a nearly compelling argument for using slower shared storage.

Termux Widget How-To

There is now a file in this package's Termux-widget folder which provides a comprehensive guide to installing, configuring, and using both Termux and Termux:Widget. Please consult the new how-to for more info omitted here. The how-to also gives instructions for setting up custom widget icons, using images like those now provided in this package. Per the how-to, helper scripts automate both shim and icon copies in 1.2.

Script Interaction

After launching a script, you will interact with it in the script's console window using your physical or on-screen keyboard. For demos of script interaction, see the run logs in this package's examples folder, as well as the Android screenshot. For instance, here are typical sync sessions on a PC and a phone. These scripts explain their actions along the way and are straightforward to use, but the following covers a few salient points:

In addition to their configuration files, these scripts request and read input interactively in the console. As usual with command-line programs, these inputs can be automated by using shell < file input-stream or <<EOF here-document syntax. See other resources for pointers. Tip: at "y or n" (yes or no) prompts, pressing enter/return alone is the same as inputting "n" (no)—as is any reply that isn't "y" itself.
When running scripts, press the enter/return key to continue when prompted about a new step starting. To avoid having to press a key this way between steps, set PauseSteps to False in either or both config files. Alternatively, pause key-press inputs can be automated, per the preceding bullet.
Step runtimes are displayed in the console after each step completes, unless you set ShowRuntimes to False in the config files (these times may be more useful for long-running initial copies than quicker later syncs). Total elapsed runtime—all steps' time + all user time—is always displayed at script exit.
A control-C at any pre-step pause or other prompt kills the running script safely, but may leave zipfiles and partial progress behind; see console messages and the killed script itself for details on progress before the abort. Reruns suffice to clean up temporary items left by aborted scripts, and are generally safe because deltas are not applied to the proxy until they are zipped and copied to it. If an emergency reset is ever necessary, see the rollbacks coverage ahead.

Tip: most of this package's screenshots have the luxury of being captured on a large Fold3 screen, but you'll probably want to run its scripts in landscape orientation on smaller phones to avoid line wraps in messages. The narrower Note20 Ultra used in this shot demos the idea.

Step Logfiles

Step logfiles give the full details of a run. They show up in the folders whose pathnames you assigned to LOGS in your PC and phone config-file settings. Here are example logfile-folder listings from a PC and a phone. Read the logfiles there later, or monitor a long-running step's progress with a command like the following in a console run in a different window, where logfilename is the latest item in your LOGS folder:

tail -f LOGS/logfilename
This command works in all Unix-like shells, including Termux on your phone. In Termux, you can both open a new session to tail logfiles and switch sessions by swiping in from the top left.

Besides saving step output to logfiles, this system also displays the last few lines of each step's output in the run's console window, to give you a quick summary of results. If this summary looks amiss, open the logfile in LOGS for the complete story. For a broad sample of run logfiles, see the demos' logs subfolders in this package's examples folder (here's a typical log). Tech note: logfiles are written in unbuffered mode, so their output shows up right away to give script status: the end of the log is the most-recent message written.

Manual Copies

On your phone, you will be instructed to manually copy a zipfile from the proxy drive's root to a specific phone folder, during the initial copy, and later syncs. Verify and export runs ask you to copy a zipfile from your phone to the proxy instead.

When prompted, copy the named zipfile using any Android file-explorer app which has permission to access both a USB drive, and the storage location to which or from which you are copying. Most explorers will suffice, and will work well because this is a single-file copy, but see the Android-explorer coverage ahead for tips.

This copy must be a manual step, because it cannot be run by command line in Termux (or similar). Like all other POSIX programs, Termux no longer has direct access to USB in Android 11 and later, per this screenshot and coverage. On the upside, this copy is simple, and is the only manual step in any of this system's scripts.

Note that file explorers' GUIs abstract the root folder of internal storage and USB drives in different ways. The root path of your internal storage at /sdcard, for instance, may be simply called "Internal Memory," "Main storage," or similar, and an attached USB drive at /mnt/media_rw/ID uses nicknames too. Extrapolate from path to explorer label as needed.

Fine point: /sdcard (a.k.a. /storage/emulated/0) is really the root of your per-user space in internal storage. Rooted phones have access to the higher and broader device storage root, /, but they also can access USB drives from POSIX programs at /mnt/media_rw, and hence may have no compelling reason to run this package.

Unix Permissions

As preset, Unix file and folder permissions are not propagated to the destination phone, because they have no effect in shared storage, and can make it impossible to change or delete content in app-specific storage. The latter may reflect an Android bug, but is crucial for content hosted in app-specific storage. Be sure to change the setting UnixPermissions to True when using this system with app-private phone storage, which better supports permissions propagation.

Details: not all Android 11 devices retain propagated Unix permissions in app-specific storage. Per ziptools' research and demo noted earlier, the Z Fold3 does, but the Pixel 4a does not. Where supported, however, propagated Unix permissions typically make it impossible to update or remove content in app-specific storage in any file explorer or app, other than the storage's owner. With permissions propagation, for example, content stored by this system in Termux's app-specific storage can be viewed by other apps, but can be modified only by Termux. Allowing Android to stamp items with default permissions instead enables updates and deletions from any approved app.

Hence, this package's phone scripts by default omit ziptools' -permissions flag in on-phone extracts, to prevent propagation of Unix permissions. To force propagation in contexts where it makes sense, set UnixPermissions to True in the phone config file. This may be useful for content hosted in app-private storage, where direct cross-app updates are largely disallowed and irrelevant, and where you'll probably want to retain Unix permissions in general. This config is moot for shared storage, because permission propagations there are always ignored by Android.

Note that permissions are always retained in zipfiles created on Unix PCs; the config setting prevents copying them to phone storage types which support them (but perhaps shouldn't). Also note that this system assumes phones are view-only devices in general (sans exports), but does not assume that on-phone content can never be changed; program data files, for example, may still require write access.

Permissions Policy in 1.1 Verifies

As a minor twist, the verify scripts added in 1.1 always propagate Unix permissions from phone to PC—though these will generally be defaults when mirrored from both shared and app-specific storage (and are largely pointless on Windows PCs in any event). Because of this, there is no UnixPermissions setting in the PC config file.

Permissions Policy in 1.2 Exports

This same policy is adopted by the export scripts added in 1.2: backsyncs always propagate Unix permissions from phones to PCs, subject to the PC platform's permissions support (again, Windows is mostly indifferent). This may change permissions on PCs when backsyncing from Android storage types that do not support permissions well (specifically: shared and some app-specific storage), but this occurs only for files changed on the phone, and is an unavoidable interoperability obstacle.

Nonportable Filenames

Except when running on Windows natively, this system by default offers to automatically run Mergeall's fixer tool for nonportable filenames on the PC, as a first step. Where relevant, this step is crucial to content interoperability, though its usage story depends on whether you run the PC-side scripts on Unix or Windows:

On Unix
The fixer-tool run is strongly recommended when transferring content or changes from Unix (i.e., macOS or Linux), to either Windows, some Android's shared storage, or proxy drives using FAT32 or exFAT. It's also generally a good idea when burning content to BDR and other optical drives, but these are outside this system's scope.

If you don't run this step, nonportable filenames that work on Unix may be mangled (i.e. changed) when propagated elsewhere, and their files may be discarded in full by some tools. In this package specifically: such files are skipped with an error message when transferring them to Android 11 shared storage, but saved intact to Android 11 app-specific and app-private storage, as well as earlier Androids' shared storage. This reflects the underlying ziptools system.

The fate of nonportably named files on proxy drives, however, is PC and drive dependent. Such files fail on Linux when written to FAT32 and exFAT proxies. By contrast, such names are saved on such proxies without error on macOS due to that platform's munging to and from Unicode privates, but may fail in later network backsyncs. On both platforms, nonportable names may also leak out to Android in this system's initial-copy and deltas zips, and fail there. For examples of the effects, see the shared-storage and Linux demos here and here.

Though recommended in general for all these reasons, if this step proves irrelevant to your use cases, it can be skipped at its prompt, and its offer can be disabled altogether by setting CheckFilenames to False in the PC configs file. See also the update at this section's end: the filename fixer is now also run for names exported from Android, because some of its storage types follow Unix's flexibility.

On Windows
The fixer-script step is never run when using Windows native tools, because it's pointless in this context: Windows disallows nonportable filenames globally (it is the platform that makes them nonportable, after all), so there are no names to fix. Windows native here means that these scripts are run by a Python that registers as Windows (i.e., win32) in Python's sys.platform. Non-native Windows tools (e.g., Cygwin's own Python) may yield nonportable names, but do not register as Windows this way, and so will invoke the fixer step to adjust filenames.

The filename behavior of non-native Windows tools is subtle. Cygwin, for example, allows nonportable names to be created via name munging much like macOS. Its own Python reverses the munge to nonportable characters, but registers as cygwin. Windows' Python run in Cygwin register as Windows, but does not map munge characters back to nonportables, so files do not fail. WSL Linux munges nonportables just like Cygwin, and registers as linux. For demos of Cygwin and WSL in action, see the examples here.

Hence, the name-fixer step is always skipped in Windows-native contexts, for which the CheckFilenames config setting is ignored. Cygwin and WSL users can change this setting to skip the step as desired.

For more on the name-fixer step in general, see the comments at the top of Mergeall's fixer tool, and ziptools' related coverage of nonportable filenames here.

Related note: Unix filenames should generally be run through the name-fixer script anytime they are copied to Windows—including in manual zips created outside this system. Else, the unzip may discard files or handle their names unexpectedly (e.g., backslashes in Unix filenames generate subfolders on Windows in ziptools, but are less harmfully replaced with an underscore in the fixer). See the Windows example for a rare case where this matters, and the Windows unzips coverage ahead for related info. Avoiding nonportable filenames in the first place may be their best work-around.

Filenames Option in 1.2 Exports

As of version 1.2, CheckFilenames has also been added to the phone configs file for phone exports and preset to True, because it's possible to create nonportable filenames in some Android app storages which conform to Unix naming conventions. App-private folders, for example, allow nearly arbitrary names.

As preset, unless the "phone" is really a Windows PC, the export scripts offer to fix these names first, as they may otherwise fail if exported to Windows, as well as some external drive's filesystems (post PC-side unzip). You can change this setting to False to skip the test if you either will export only to Unix, or are using an Android storage type that disallows nonportable names. Shared storage on Android 11 and later generally prohibits such names.

Sync Previews

The Mergeall deltas.py script supports Mergeall's -report option to preview differences without saving them, though using the same switch with mergeall.py has the same effect. This preview is run initially by this system's PC-side sync script, if PreviewSyncs is True in the PC config file, and you confirm the run interactively.

This config setting is preset to True because previews are generally advised. Use them as desired to inspect deltas before writing them to disk. This may, for example, avoid unintended and time-consuming full copies at DST rollovers when using FAT32 proxy drives (see Mergeall docs).

Sync Verifications

There is no direct way to verify the on-phone content copy against the proxy or PC copies, because POSIX code like Python cannot access USB drives normally on Android 11, and phone access by MTP and network servers is not fully usable. The phone might be compared to the proxy after syncs by manually copying full zipped content from proxy to phone, or vice versa; this is too slow to automate here, but might serve as an occasional and manual option (tip: zip content first on phone or proxy using a tool like ziptools—or see the update ahead for a precoded solution that does).

As a partial measure, setting VerifyProxy to True in the PC config file runs mergeall and/or diffall to verify the proxy's content against the PC's in both initial copies and later syncs. The mergeall run compares by structure and modtimes, and diffall performs a full byte-for-byte comparison. The config setting is preset to True because verifications are generally recommended, but you are prompted to confirm each verify step independently because they add time to the run unevenly. A mergeall verify is usually quick, but a more-complete diffall can be slow for larger content collections.

Note that it's normal and harmless to have one diffall diff: a unique item for the copies' top-level __bkp__ backup folders. Also note that symlinks on Linux cannot be written to FAT32 or exFAT drives, and so will always register as PC-side diffs. This is an innate limitation of these filesystems on Linux—which macOS avoids only by forging a symlink stub file which passes for an actual link on macOS alone, and will still yield diffs elsewhere. For an example of the consequences on Linux, see its demos. The only external-drive symlink option on Linux is other filesystems.

Phone Verifications in 1.1

As of version 1.1 of this system, it is now possible to verify the phone's content copy against the PC's, by running the new verify scripts. For a quick look, see them in action in the new example and screenshots. These scripts switch dataflow order—content moves from phone to PC—but config-file settings work unchanged on both phone and PC.

This process is optional and meant to be used only occasionally, because it is relatively slow and temporarily requires twice the space of your content on phone, proxy, and PC for an extra content copy or unzip. As chronicled by the new example's readme, for example, verifying an on-phone content folder of some 200G space and 160K files required an extra 200G everywhere (400G total capacity), and took roughly one hour (50 minutes on phone and 15 on PC). Especially if your phone hosts a throwaway copy, such costs may be unwarranted.

Nevertheless, if you do wish to prove that the phone's copy matches that on PC, the verify scripts will zip full content on your phone; prompt you to manually copy the zipfile to your USB proxy; and then unzip the phone's content on your PC and compare it to the PC's copy with Mergeall and diffall. As noted, the former compares content copies by modtimes and structure; the latter is a byte-for-byte compare which is more complete but slower, and an optional step in verify scripts.

Though too slow for frequent use, this suffices to validate phone content: you should see differences only for normal skew (e.g., backup folders) and items that cannot be stored on your phone (e.g., symlinks in shared storage). Just as importantly, the verify scripts can also be used to export phone content to PC—simply opt to retain the unzipped phone content at the end of the scripts, sync it to the PC's copy with Mergeall or adopt it in full with a move, and sync the proxy to the PC as needed. We'll revisit this role as an alternative to backsyncs ahead—and meet the newer 1.2 export scripts which do backsyncs better.

Finalization Hook

Depending on your use case, you may wish to edit the z_postcopy_hook_phone.py script, to add custom steps required after to-phone copies are finished. This file is run at the end of both the initial-copy and synch-changes phone scripts. It's shipped with no commands, but any Python code you add to it will be run after all to-phone content propagations.

As an example, you might expand this script if you're keeping your full content in Termux's app-specific storage for speed, and need to copy specific folders to shared storage so they can be accessed by apps with limited permissions—including tkinter GUIs run in Pydroid 3. This hook may also be useful to copy media files to shared storage for constrained players.

This won't help, however, for copying website content to browsers' app-specific storage so it can be viewed locally; Termux cannot access other apps' app-specific storage in Android 11, so a file explorer with either app-specific permissions or local-view heroics is required. Some explorers, for example, now spawn HTTP servers to circumvent Android access limitations.

Sync Rollbacks

If ever needed, changes made by applying a deltas set with this package can be fully rolled back (i.e., undone), by manually running another mergeall.py -restore command in the host platform's console, passing the backups set saved in the content copy's top-level __bkp__ folder as the command's FROM source.

This restore command can be applied to both the proxy and on-phone content copies, to restore their state before the latest sync. It takes the following general form, where TO is the path to the root folder of your proxy or phone content copy, and backup is the latest date/time-labeled backup folder:

python3 mergeall.py TO/__bkp__/backup TO -restore -auto -skipcruft

See Mergeall's core docs, as well as "ROLLBACKS" in deltas.py's main docstring for more on running restore commands. This package's scripts do their part, by using Mergeall's -backup flag when applying delta sets during syncs—apart from the major optimization exception added late in the 1.0 project, and called out by the following update.

Configuring Backups in Syncs

The -backup option automatically prunes old __bkp__ backup folders. Because these deletions can be horrifically slow in shared storage in Android 11 (5 to 10 minutes for under 2G was not uncommon), backups in this package's scripts can now be configured on or off in both the PC and phone config files. Set BackupChanges to True in the PC file to enable backups for proxy-copy changes. Do the same in the phone file to enable backups for phone-copy changes. When enabled, Mergeall's -backup flag will be used by sync scripts when applying delta sets, to enable later rollbacks. When disable, -backup is not used and rollbacks are not possible.

Important: as preset, backups are enabled for the proxy drive, but disabled for the phone to avoid slow shared-storage prunes. If left disabled, you cannot perform a later rollback of phone-sync changes, and must recopy content if it's ever corrupted by a sync. However, the presets make syncs much faster; phone copies are often view only and disposable; and disabling backups saves space on any device. The speed boost is moot if you opt to use app storages for content on your phone, but shared storage has usability advantages which are compelling enough to support it by default with presets.

Backups in 1.2 Exports

As of 1.2, the new export scripts use the BackupChanges setting in the PC config file, when applying changes to both PC and proxy in backsync mode. Hence, you'll generally want this setting to be True so you can rollback both normal syncs to the proxy, as well as backsyncs to both proxy and PC. For more on export-script backsyncs, see ahead. Exports don't mod the phone, so its backups setting is irrelevant in this mode.

Android File Explorers

This package's phone-side scripts prompt you to copy a zipfile with a file explorer on your phone. For this copy, you can use any explorer that allows you to access both your USB drive, and the storage type you've chosen to host copied zipfiles. You'll also want to choose an explorer which can access the storage type that hosts your on-phone content in general. This section provides pointers on your options.

All Android file-explorer apps allow you to access on-phone content, but their support varies widely when it comes to both metadata and storage types. Some may be updated further by the time you read this note, and Android is nothing if not convoluted. But as pointers for users of this package: among the ten apps tested at this writing (October 2021), and on two unrooted Android 11 devices tested (a Pixel 4a and Z Fold3):

The nature of this support varies too. For example, some explorers including Samsung and Solid may require an app restart to notice USB; paths used to open files on USB drives are /mnt/media_rw on Solid but content:// URIs on others; Total Commander uses an unusual link path to open app-specific files and doesn't support Copy To; and tapping a USB drive in Notifications may also open a vendor-default browser. Some Android explorers have also been seen to hang, fail, or crawl on large copies and deletes, though this may reflect temporary bugs in either apps or the Android frameworks they use.

Naturally, USB and app-specific content access depends on both file explorers and the apps they invoke to open files, but a useful survey of the latter is outside this doc's scope. For definitive results, always test the latest versions of explorers and apps you wish to use on your own devices. Related details: see also the coverage of exFAT-driver apps for USB proxies ahead; the peek at website local-view support in explorers earlier; and the parallel coverage of explorers off page.

File Explorers 2022

A year on in Oct-2022, most Android file-explorer apps use the liberal All Files Access permission to provide content broadly in Android 11 and later; this more or less provides the same utility as older Androids. Less positively, USB and app-specific storage sometimes seem slow in explorers; this may reflect the speed of Android frameworks used to access these mediums. In at least one explorer's built-in image viewer, for example, photos in app-specific storage render more slowly than the same in shared storage, despite the latter's sloth in Termux. Because this story changes too rapidly to document, be sure to test your explorers for up-to-date results.

File Explorers and Termux App-Private Storage

Also in 2022, this guide was updated with info on using Termux app-private storage in Android file-explorer apps that support the Storage Access Framework; see the new and related coverage above.

File Explorers and App-Specific Storage in Android 13

And also in 2022, there is some chance that fie explorers may be cut off from access to app-specific storage folders in Android 13. This is early info, and seems at least partly moot at this writing; see the related coverage and alternatives above.

Usage Caution

Finally, it's worth adding a general caution for the sake of your content. Though perhaps obvious, this is a content-propagation system. Initial copies and syncs will change content on your proxy drive and phone by design, and backsyncs (a.k.a. exports) will change content on your PC and proxy and may harm nonportable items.

Some of this system's changes can be undone, but this depends on usage and configuration. To avoid unpleasant surprises, you should read this guide and its examples before using this system, and would do well to experiment with the system on non-critical data initially before using it on valued material.

Although this system is tested, open source, and used by its maker regularly, any content propagation tool can fail due to variables beyond its control, including errors in usage, hardware, and software. By using this system, you both accept responsibility for all its actions, and benefit freely from all its capabilities.

General Notes

This section closes with some notes about the system's design. Some of it is probably of more interest to developers than users, but is also provides some additional context and caveats along the way.

Background Docs

See the overview page for more on this system's scripts, and this folder for the unzipped content of this package. If you are new to Mergeall, the best starting points are its main web page and user guide. For more on the ziptools system used throughout these scripts, start at its web page or user guide. For this system's rationale in general, try this and this.

Release History

This section summarizes this system's versions. The date at the top of this page always gives its most recent release, and is updated whenever actual code or functionality is changed. If you find an issue in this system, please report it via the "Input" link in the toolbar below. Software improves best with use and feedback.

Version 1.2: September 26, 2022 ~ January 6, 2023
Version 1.2, initially released in Sep-2022, primarily adds two new export scripts which propagate on-phone changes back to both proxy and PC, as an automated backsync mode. These scripts zip the phone's content copy; prompt for it to be copied to the proxy drive; unzip it on the PC; and use Mergeall to sync the content copies on both proxy and PC quickly. These scripts also replace former export schemes that used 1.1's verify scripts but required a manual copy on PC and a manual Mergeall on proxy. A new example demos 1.2 exports in action, as well as all other scripts in this system. Also for exports, there is a new Termux-widget shim, and new usage screenshots.

Roles: use exports if you'll be changing content on your phone directly. Their full copy of phone content may make them too slow for frequent phone-to-PC backsyncs of larger content collections, but they may suffice for smaller content, and might be useful to occasionally transfer changes in arbitrarily sized content back to your PC (e.g., after a trip with your phone sans PC). Though designed for backsync change propagation, these scripts may also be used to export phone content in full, if the target folder is empty on PC, proxy, or both.

Caution: phone exports work well for normal files and folders, but have the potential to overwrite nonportable items like symlinks on your PC. For details, see the coverage above, and the caution in the part-1 export script. Symlinks morph to simple stub files when unzipped in Android storage types that do not support them, and will come back as such to PCs during exports. Hence, such nonportable items may not survive roundtrips to and from a phone, and are generally better omitted from content which will be exported back to a PC.

Symlink tips: an included utility script can be used to locate all your symlinks; app-private storage retains symlinks on phones where usable; and BackupChanges=True in the PC config file ensures that any symlinks overwritten by exports will be saved in your PC content's __bkp__ folder for tactical restores. The utility script is not run automatically, because symlinks are rarer than nonportable filenames and cannot be fixed.

Other lossiness: though less harmful, Unix permissions may also be overwritten by exports from on-phone shared or (some) app-specific storages which do not support them well. This happens only for files changed on the phone alone, and is an unavoidable interoperability dead end. Read more details here and here.

Also in 1.2:

Search for "[1.2]" in the code for deeper dives.

Update 1: version 1.2 was republished in early Oct-2022 with a fix for a rare Windows-only issue: during folder removals, paths too long for Windows' default limits are now prefixed with \\?\ to make them work correctly. See rmtreeworkaround in common.py as well as the example results for more on the fix; the underlying Mergeall and ziptools systems already do this globally (and this package must be able to delete the folders which ziptools creates). Also new in this update: an on-demand utility script that reports potentially nonportable symlinks; upgrades for Termux-widget installers, including a new master script; start/final content in the 1.2 example; screenshot Notes; and more on shims and symlinks.

Update 2: the Oct-18-2022 anniversary release of 1.2 rebranded this package as "Android Deltas Sync," replacing its prior name "Android Deltas Scripts." This better reflects its purpose and scope; after a year of polishing, it's no longer a skunk-works project for developers, and is potentially useful to people who don't normally run scripts but need a simple USB sync tool for their Android phones. The renaming is nearly total; examples were updated globally with this to avoid confusion, but you may still see the old "Scripts" in a handful of screenshots that cannot be recreated a year on. This seems a minor sacrifice for a more useful app name.

Updates 3+: version 1.2 was repackaged in Nov-2022, Dec-2022, and Jan-2023 with doc changes that call out Termux app-private storage usage in SAF-capable explorers, as well as incoming signals on Android 13's partial lockdown of app-specific storage. The former includes a new demo; both add new screenshots starting here and here; and the new coverage justified restyling this guide for readability. In addition, a minor coding change shuts down scripts immediately and gracefully with a message on rare failures in Python runs (e.g., unzips). No other code or functionality was changed in these releases.

Version 1.1: November 26, 2021 ~ September 18, 2022
Version 1.1, first released in Nov-2021, chiefly adds two new verify scripts which can be used to both verify the on-phone content copy, and export this copy to the PC as an alternative to backsyncs. There is also a new Termux-widget shim for the on-phone verify script. Because version 1.1 does not change any existing 1.0 functionality, all prior examples and screenshots are still valid.

Update 1: version 1.1 was rereleased in late Dec-2021, with a minor Unicode usage note in this doc; regenerated example logfiles for the now-required Mergeall 3.3; and a new example that demos PC sync targets. No core functionality was changed, though the Mergeall 3.3 -quiet flag is now used here to silence possibly numerous Unicode-normalization messages in all runs of mergeall.py, deltas.py, and diffall.py, and a new and rarely required utility script was added: convertunicode.py.

Updates 2+: as minor 1.1 point releases, additional doc- and example-only edits were applied in Jan-2022; a new Termux how-to and widget info were added in Feb-2022; examples were updated for recent changes in Mergeall 3.3's console output in Mar-2022; export notes and content-rescue tips were added in May-2022; and the Quick Start was reworked for clarity and the Android 12 tips were updated in Sep-2022. No program code or behavior was modified in any of these point releases.

Version 1.0: October 18, 2021 ~ November 12, 2021
Version 1.0, published in Oct-2021, was a fully functional system, with both initial-copy and sync-changes scripts, and a portable coding in Python which did not require a Unix shell. Based on usage feedback, it was repackaged for minor changes and fixes after its initial release.

Updates: 1.0's final Nov-2021 release included mods to print logfiles in unbuffered mode for better status info; make backups configurable and disabled by default on phones to sidestep shared-storage sloth for backup prunes; remove an existing deltas folder during phone syncs; and automatically acquire and release the wakelock in Termux-widget shims.

Python Translation

This system's scripts are Python translations and extensions of same-named Bash originals retained in the _etc/bash-version folder. The Bash originals work, but the Python recoding is better for portability of the PC-side scripts to Windows: they may be run in normal Windows shells like Command Prompt and PowerShell, without having to install Cygwin or WSL. Moreover, Python scripts can also be run on PCs by icon clicks and IDEs as covered earlier.

Cygwin and WSL can be used on Windows too, but have tangible seams which make them less user friendly (e.g., newline rules and drive mounts). Bash might suffice for phone-side scripts since commands can be run in Termux, but config files must be in Python or Bash (not both), and Python enables launches by Android IDE apps and shortcuts, and better supports code evolution.

A downside of Python in this context is that its abstractions used for portability may obscure the command lines it runs; see the Bash originals for a direct (if cryptic and Unix-only) command tour.

ziptools Version

This system does most of its work by leveraging the Mergeall and ziptools systems as a software stack. ziptools is shipped both stand-alone and as a tool embedded in the Mergeall package. Scripts here use Mergeall's copy, though the stand-alone version is also available here. You can enable ziptools stand-alone installs in common.py, but this is not required. The ziptools included with Mergeall 3.2 or later suffices here, and the same maker publishes ziptools, Mergeall, and this package; the three are kept in sync and help drive development in each other.

Times and Logs

To report real elapsed runtimes, these scripts now use Python timer calls which are immune to complexities in shell timing tools. The scripts' original versions used the Bash time command to display step runtimes, but this command ends timing prematurely on control-Z to background a step, and an alternative /usr/bin/time survives control-Z but isn't present on phone in Termux and doesn't respect Bash settings as well. Python avoids these issues, but as a general rule, open another console to tail log files during runs, per the logfiles usage coverage above.

Why Zips

This system zips content for transfer to minimize the risks of data loss and copy failures. Else, some copy destinations drop folder modtimes, symlinks, and permissions, and may discard or covertly rename files with nonportable names. Worse, Android file explorers run very slowly for raw folder copies, and may even fail to finish. Without naming names, multiple apps fully hung while testing copies of large folders, and some suffered disk unmounts (see also the earlier explorer coverage).

Zipping content neutralizes all these factors in full. As a bonus, zips are also generally much faster to transfer than individual files on every device. Unzips can outpace raw copies too, because the former opens just one input file: see the initial-copy script's cpall note for metrics.

A Year of Zips

After syncing with this package for a full year in October 2022, zipfiles have proved to be a big win over raw copies. In fact, even if POSIX USB access were magically restored in Android, this system would still likely use zipfiles for to-and-from phone transfers as it does today. The only change would be to automate the manual zipfile copy steps on the phone. Zipping content eliminates entire categories of interoperability pitfalls—no matter who does the copying.

Why Not a GUI

A cross-platform deltas create/apply GUI was rejected for this project for a number of reasons. For one, in the simplest use case with no zips, syncs would require two runs in the GUI on PC (create deltas, apply deltas), and forgetting the second would leave the proxy different than the phone. For another, zips are nearly required per the preceding note, and this makes for numerous steps—four or more on both PC and phone for syncs:

See the scripts for full fidelity. Even with a GUI, that's a lot to ask users to complete as a set, especially when skipping a step might harm on-phone content. Automating steps and zips in scripts is far less error prone, and no more demanding of users in practice.

Size Caveat: FAT32

This system won't work with FAT32 proxy drives if its content or deltas zipfiles are larger than 4G (this is a FAT32 limitation). This limit is unlikely to be broached by syncs, because their deltas zips are normally small. It could, however, be a factor for initial copies of content collections larger than 4G, as they zip content in full.

If your zipfiles are that large, your best option is to reformat the proxy drive to use exFAT, or another more-functional filesystem supported by both your PC and your phone. exFAT is generally your most interoperable choice for USB storage devices. It does not have FAT32's 4G limit, avoids FAT32's modtime perils that can derail proxy syncs, and is broadly usable on both PCs and most recent Android phones. While exFAT support on phones has been vendor dependent in the past, its recent adoption by the underlying Linux kernel should make it standard on Android soon.

If you're unsure of your devices' exFAT support, try your user docs or the web, or simply format a drive and test. Where unavailable as a built in, you may still be able to use exFAT on your phone by installing an app. Such apps do not mount USB drives in ways accessible to POSIX programs, and may require specific file explorers, but can suffice for the manual zipfile copies employed by this system's scripts. On an unrooted Android 11 Pixel 4a, for example, the Paragon app here and here enables exFAT access in Total Commander, X-plore, and FX, albeit with occasional remounts.

If exFAT (or other filesystem) is not an option in your use case, your last resort is to use raw copies in file explorers. This still requires enough space on the proxy to hold a copy of your content, and regrettably adds Android file-explorer variables to the mix, but it may avoid FAT32's 4G limit for individual files. Moreover, you may still be able to use this system's sync scripts for later updates because their zips are usually small.

Size Caveat: Proxy

As coded, the initial-copy-part1-pc.py script temporarily requires twice as much total space on your proxy drive as your content collection, to store both a content copy and an uncompressed content zip. For example, a 100G content collection temporarily requires 200G on the proxy, but just 100G later. This is necessary because stingier alternatives have too many steps to automate.

If your proxy doesn't have enough space, simply run this script's steps manually, but move the zip to your phone before copying content to the proxy (see the Bash original for more-direct command examples). The upside is that this space requirement is temporary (the zip may be manually removed from the proxy after the to-phone transfer), and applies only to the initial content copy. Later syncs require just enough extra space for normally small delta sets.

Special case: the 1.1 verify scripts and 1.2 export scripts described here and here temporarily require twice the space of your content on your proxy for an extra zipped copy (and similar on your phone and PC). They're also entirely optional.

Size Caveat: Phone

As coded, the initial-copy-part2-phone.py script temporarily requires twice as much total space on your phone as your content collection, to store both an uncompressed content zip and a content copy. For example, a 100G content collection temporarily requires 200G on the phone, but just 100G later. This is necessary to avoid issues in Android file explorers, which have been seen to fail for direct copies of larger content collections.

If your phone doesn't have enough space, manually copy unzipped content from proxy to phone by file explorer, and run this script's other steps manually as needed (see the Bash original for more-direct command examples). This script deletes the zip from the phone automatically after unzipping, and its size requirement also applies only to the initial content copy. Space requirements for later syncs are much more modest.

Special case: the 1.1 verify scripts and 1.2 export scripts described here and here temporarily require twice the space of your content on your phone for an extra zipped copy (and similar on your proxy and PC). They're also entirely optional.

Skew Caveat: Proxy vs Phone

It's atypical but not impossible that the proxy drive's content copy may differ slightly from that on the phone for which it stands in, because the phone's copy reflects zipfiles created on the PC, not the proxy itself, and the proxy and phone may support esoteric content differently.

Exotica like symlinks and Unix permissions, for example, may differ across both proxy filesystems and Android storage types, and the disposition of nonportable filenames is platform specific. We've touched on some of these topics earlier (e.g., here, here, and here), but this note takes another look from the perspective of content skew.

First and foremost, it's important to note that most use cases don't need to care. Proxy and phone copies will never differ for normal content (files and folders) and its modtimes. Moreover, even when deviations arise, they may be acceptable; may be irrelevant as long as the proxy suffices for syncs to PC; and may be easily avoided in general. If a content component doesn't work on a drive or Android, you can opt to simply not propagate it.

If your use case ever does need to care, however, here's a quick rundown of expected differences when twilight-zone content is moved from PC platforms to drives and phones:

On macOS
Propagated symlinks may take different stub-file forms on an exFAT proxy drive and Android shared or app-specific storage; the former is a macOS forgery, and the latter is a ziptools creation. Still, the proxy's symlink stub will compare correctly to the PC in future syncs, and thus avoid perpetual diffs; see the macOS and ziptools symlink stories here and here. More negatively, nonportable filenames munged by macOS for storage on exFAT may trigger diffs because they cannot be saved in Android 11 shared storage; there is no repair for either side of this skew equation, apart from running the fixer script to adjust filenames.
On Linux
Opposite conundrums are posed: rather than changing content to save it, it fully refuses to save both symlinks and nonportable filenames to exFAT proxies, even though both may be smuggled onto some Android storage types in this system's zipfiles. Symlinks may yield stub files on proxy and phone, and both symlinks and nonportables become perpetual PC-side diffs (more info here and here). The only remedies for such Linux skew are fixing filenames, using other filesystems, or avoiding items that won't travel well across your devices.
On Windows
There are no nonportable filenames to propagate: they're disallowed globally, and cannot be imported from zipfiles. Unzips in Windows (File) Explorer, for example, discard such files silently, and ziptools mangles characters to "_" to allow saves unless it's run with -nomangle. Windows has symlinks too, but their requirements for special permissions or modes and the NTFS filesystem make them even scarcer than on Unix. The Unix-like Cygwin and WSL can produce skew in Windows much like Linux; see their earlier coverage.

The upside here is that components which may differ between proxy and phone are generally rare and trivial, and can be controlled by users. They also cannot be better supported in any event. Zipping on the proxy instead of the PC might avoid some skew, but it would also slow initial copies and syncs, and is unlikely to offer any advantages for notoriously nonportable content like symlinks and Unix-only filenames.

More generally, the content copy on the phone may grow out of sync if it is ever changed on the phone: because it will never again be synced to the full copy on PC and proxy after initial creation, on-phone changes may endure until another full copy. This is an inherent downside in using only incremental delta-set syncs, but necessitated by Android 11's removal of POSIX USB access. On the other hand, this is acceptable if the phone's copy is used as a view-only resource—a current assumption of this system discussed ahead.

Checking for Skew in 1.1

As of version 1.1 of this system, you can now check for differences between on-PC and on-phone content copies, by running the verify scripts introduced earlier. While this is a slow process and not a direct sync, it can be used periodically to detect unintended skew between phone and PC. This can also be used to export phone content in general per ahead.

Windows 11 Symlinks

Though it seems a well-kept secret, Windows 11 requires no admin permission to create symlinks; you simply need to enable Developer Mode in Settings => Privacy & security => For developers. Once you do, symlinks can be made on NTFS drives from both the shell and Python, and in both native Windows and WSL. Some of this evolved in Windows 10, but the rules were substantially stricter in the past.

More importantly here, after you enable this mode, the ziptools system underlying this package happily recreates Unix symlinks on Windows, and even adjusts their path separators as needed to make this work. There's more on ziptools' symlink support on Windows here. While this is good news if you sync to a Windows PC as though it were a phone (a trick we'll meet in the next section), this package's main focus is syncing content to Android—where symlinks support is still sketchy.

Scope: Other Platforms

This system is primarily meant for Android 11 and later. It works to sync devices running Android 10 and earlier too, but may be overkill there. Prior to 11, you can simply run two direct Mergealls by USB: from PC to external drive, and from external drive to phone—and using either Mergeall's command lines or GUI for both. This is arguably more user friendly, as no manual deltas-set copy is required along the way. See Mergeall's original docs for its simpler usage on earlier and less restrictive Androids.

In principle, this system could also be used to sync other platforms besides phones. For example, once a deltas set is created, it could be applied to a heterogeneous set of devices whose content copies are all kept in sync with the proxy drive. In this mode, a destination would not necessarily be a "phone" and not necessarily be Android. Phone config files would reflect platform-specific paths on each sync target, and the phone-sync script would simply be run on each target device in turn—whether they are phones or not.

This usage mode works today too, but this system is not explicitly designed for it, because this mode inflexibly requires all other devices to be synced at the same time (while deltas are valid), and other platforms can use direct and simpler merges. Syncing to a mix of macOS, Windows, Linux, and Android-10-or-earlier devices, for instance, can use a basic Mergeall run on each as before, both whenever convenient, and with either command line or GUI. Only Android 11 requires the indirect deltas-based syncs performed by this system.

Nevertheless, syncing multiple devices with a precomputed deltas set might be quicker than basic merges, because it avoids an initial comparison phase on each target. Moreover, a device mix that includes Android 11 must create deltas for Android 11 anyhow, making them available for use on other devices. This system awaits broader usage feedback to determine whether generalizing its scope makes sense.

PC-as-Phone Demo

There is now a complete example that shows how to sync a deltas set to a Windows PC with this package—see the new demo. This usage mode confusingly calls the PC a "phone" in its prompts, but otherwise works well: after storing PC paths in the phone config file on your PC, you'll run the phone-sync scripts on your PC, trade Mergeall-GUI paths selection for a file-explorer zipfile copy, and skip a full comparison step in syncs. It's roughly as simple as a direct Mergeall, and often quicker.

This mode remains an afterthought, and user input on its value is welcome. With it, however, this package can be used to propagate the same deltas set to all the devices in your gadget collection—Android 11 and later, earlier Androids, and PCs masquerading as phones. Despite original scope, this has already begun to prove useful in practice.

Android 12, 12L, 13, and later

While this system was developed in response to constraints added in Android 11, it runs just as well on later versions too, albeit with additional plot twists. Here's a brief summary of the story so far:

Per earlier, this package works on all Androids 8 and later, is expected to work on Androids 14+, but predicting Android's annual dramas is hazardous at best (and developing for them may be worse). As always, test on your devices in your present.

Feedback from the Trenches

In practice so far, running this package's scripts on earlier phones seems as easy as Mergeall's GUI (especially when the Termux home-screen widget is used for launches), and is noticeably faster because it skips full comparisons. These scripts now also seem simpler and safer than pulling and syncing a microSD card on phones that still have one; in fact, they may be a better option even if cards reemerge on future Folds. Still, Mergeall's GUI remains useful on older Androids for impromptu syncs, enables direct content verification that indirect schemes cannot, and supports broader usage modes of the sort discussed in the next section.

Scope: Backsyncs

This system generally assumes that the phone (i.e., sync destination) is used as a view-only device, because normal syncs are unidirectional, flowing from PC to phone only. While changes on the phone might be synced back to the PC with a similar indirect scheme, supporting such backsyncs would require substantial script retooling, if possible at all.

Backsyncs from phone to PC are made complex—if not implausible—by the same lack of direct POSIX USB access on Android 11 which was this system's genesis. Because there is no way to compare on-phone content to the proxy drive itself, either:

All of these would be prohibitively expensive in time or space for large data sets, unless full content transfers or duplicate copies could be avoided. Although it's possible to imagine options that might reduce overheads (e.g., computing deltas from separately maintained doppelgänger trees with modtimes but zero-length files), this may again require religiously syncing multiple devices at the same time, and could complicate and slow content syncs radically or impractically—and all for the sake of Android 11 alone. This may rule out backsyncs themselves, but the following updates provide usable alternatives.

Phone Exports in 1.2

As of version 1.2, this system now provides dedicated scripts that export on-phone changes to both PC and proxy, and qualify as an improved backsync alternative. See the release note for complete details. These new export scripts are still relatively slow for larger content collections because they must copy your phone's content in full, and they require space for the extra content copy on your phone, proxy, and PC. Still, they automate the task of propagating on-phone changes back to your PC; may work well for smaller content and occasional use; and fully supersede the former verify-based export and backsync schemes described in the following note.

Phone Exports in 1.1

As of version 1.1 of this system, it is now possible to export phone content in full to your PC, by running the verify scripts as described earlier. These scripts use zipfiles to copy phone content to PC for comparison, and were designed to verify phone content: run the first of the pair on your phone and the second on your PC, and inspect the comparison results on your PC to prove your phone copy's validity.

In addition, though, these new scripts can also be used to export content from phone to PC, by opting to retain the phone's unzipped content on your PC at the end of the verify process. Then, simply sync the phone's content to the PC's with a normal Mergeall run on your PC, or adopt the phone's content copy verbatim as your new on-PC copy with a move or rename.

Important: if you export content from your phone this way, keep in mind that the verify scripts do not update the proxy to match the phone automatically, because this is unneeded in verification roles, and the content copies on the phone and proxy are normally the same when using this system's scripts. If your phone's copy has been changed directly, though, and now differs from the proxy, you must also be sure to sync the proxy to match the PC's new content exported from the phone, so that all three copies—phone, proxy, and PC—will be the same. This requires an extra and manual Mergeall step described in the PC script.

Exporting phone content this way is a slow process, and does not qualify as a backsync per se: it's a full copy from phone to PC, plus optional syncs on the PC and proxy. Nevertheless, its automated zipfiles speed the copy, and it may suffice to propagate changes from phone to PC occasionally. If you'll be using only your phone on a trip, for example, you can sync from PC to phone before leaving, make arbitrary changes on your phone while away, and use the verify scripts to propagate changes back to your PC when you return. This is nowhere near as nice as direct Mergealls, but will have to pass as usable on Android 11 and later sans USB access. Which bring us to this guide's conclusion.

Closing Thoughts

This doc has largely resisted editorializing, but in closing, a few words of perspective seem in order.

This system is the culmination of a content-management odyssey on Android which has spanned four years and versions—from Oreo, whose working modtimes first enabled syncs, through 11, whose by-design USB lockdowns and shared-storage throttling made this task much more difficult. In particular, Android 11's removal of USB access for POSIX programs undermines content management badly, and remains an affront to usability and interoperability. And Samsung's removal of microSD cards only seals this door tighter.

Android Is Not Linux

This may be disappointing, but should not be wholly unexpected. Android is not desktop Linux, despite the shared heritage and code. Unlike its freedom-focused cousin, Android:

The net effect breaks both data flow and device utility, and opposes productivity by design. While such devices might pass as shrink-wrapped media portals, equating them to general-purpose PCs seems the stuff of deceptive marketing and quixotic fancy.

Smartphones Are Not User-Friendly

Together with the ethics of Android's owner, this motif has naturally spawned a culture in which customer exploitation passes as a norm. The platform's pay-or-else advertising model, for example, smacks more of ransomware than commerce. Indeed, smartphones in general seem crafted explicitly to provide their makers with dark points of control—whether this means:

The sum's simplest interpretation is a cynical but concerted effort to prey on content consumers who are too naive to understand the nature of the phones they pocket. Although some maker motives are matters of speculation, these devices are clearly not as customer focused as they might be.

Privacy Is Still Your Choice

Even so, this package's scripts provide a path to maintaining content on these devices for those determined enough to try, and manage, at least for their intended roles, to subvert whatever Android-storage intrigues or gaffes may be. The work-around is not trivial, but cloud-based alternatives are innately perilous. Trusting valued content to profit-driven companies with clear patterns of invading privacy and scorning ethics will, for many, never be a viable option.

At the end of the day, keeping your stuff on your phone is getting harder, but it's still possible. And it's still worth the extra steps to keep the bad guys from turning your personal life into their covert revenue stream. Rooting through your property without your permission is just as creepy in the digital realm as it is in the real one, and it's sad that the computer field has embraced this as a valid business practice.

At least for now, though, you can still say no.


[Python Logo] Top Code Images Examples Fold3 Mergeall Ziptools Input ©M.Lutz