|An expanded and polished version of this article appears as a new appendix in 2013's Learning Python, 5th Edition.|
This page describes the new Windows launcher for Python, installed with Python 3.3 automatically and available separately on the Web for use with older versions. Though the new launcher comes with some pitfalls, it provides some much-needed coherence for program execution when multiple Pythons coexist on the same computer.
I've written this page for programmers using Python on Windows. Though it's platform-specific by nature, it's targeted at both Python beginners (most of whom get started on this platform), as well as Python developers who write code to work portably between Windows and Unix. As we'll see, the new launcher changes the rules on Windows radically enough to impact everyone who uses Python on Windows, or may in the future.
To fully understand the launcher's protocols, we have to begin with a short history lesson. Unix developers long ago devised a protocol for designating a program to run a script's code. On Unix, the first line in a script's text file is special if it begins with a "#!", sometimes called a "shebang" (an arguably silly phrase I promise not to repeat from here on).
In Unix scripts, such lines designate a program to run the rest of the script's code, by coding it after the "#!" — using either the directory path to the desired program itself, or an invocation of the "env" Unix utility which looks up the target per your PATH setting, the customizable system environment variable that lists directories to be searched for executables:
#!/usr/local/bin/python ...script's code # run under this specific program #!/usr/bin/env python ...script's code # run under "python" found on PATHBy making such a script executable (e.g., via "chmod +x script.py"), it can be run by giving just its filename in a command line; the "#!" line at the top then directs the Unix shell to a program which will run the rest of the file's code. Depending on the platform's install structure, the "python" which these "#!" lines name might be a real executable, or a symbolic link to a version-specific executable located elsewhere. These lines might also name a more specific executable explicitly, such as "python3". Either way, by changing "#!" lines, symbolic links, or PATH settings, Unix developers can route a script to the appropriate installed Python.
None of this applies to Windows itself, of course, where "#" lines have no inherent meaning. Python itself has historically ignored such lines as comments if present in Windows. Still, the idea of selecting Python executables on a per-file basis is a compelling feature in a world where Python 2.X and 3.X often coexist on the same machine. Given that many programmers coded "#!" lines for portability to Unix anyhow, the idea seemed ripe for emulating.
The install model has been very different on the other side of the fence. In the past (well, in every Python until 3.3), Windows installs updated the global Windows registry such that the latest Python version installed on your computer was the version that opened Python files when they were clicked or run by direct filename in command lines. Some Windows users may know this registry as filename associations, configurable in Control Panel's Default Programs dialog.
Under this install model, if you wished to open a file with a different version than the latest install, you had to run a commandline giving the full path to the Python you wanted, or update your filename associations manually to use the desired version. You could also point generic "python" commandlines to a specific Python by setting or changing your PATH setting, but Python didn't set this for you, and this wouldn't apply to scripts launched by icon clicks and other contexts.
This reflects the natural model on Windows (when you click on a ".doc" file, Windows usually opens it in the latest Word installed), and has been the state of things ever since there was a Python on Windows. It's less ideal if you have Python scripts that require different versions on the same machine, though — a situation that has become increasingly common, and perhaps even normal in the dual Python 2.X/3.X era. Running multiple Pythons on Windows prior to 3.3 can be tedious for developers, and discouraging for newcomers.
The new Windows launcher, installed automatically with Python 3.3 and available as a stand-alone package for use with other versions, addresses these deficits in the former install model by providing two new executables:
The net effect is that under the new launcher, when multiple Pythons are installed on Windows, you are no longer limited to either the latest version installed or explicit/full commandlines. Instead, you can now select versions explicitly on both a per-file and per-command basis, and specify versions in either partial or full form in both contexts:
For example, the first of these techniques can serve as a sort of directive to declare which Python version the script depends upon, and will be applied by the launcher whenever the script is run by commandline or icon click:
#!python3 ... ...a 3.X script # runs under latest 3.X installed ... #!python2 ... ...a 2.X script # runs under latest 2.X installed ... #!python2.6 ... ...a 2.6 script # runs under 2.6 (only) ...On Windows, commandlines are typed in a Command Prompt window, designated by its "C:\temp>" prompt in this document. The first of the following is the same as both the second and an icon click, because of filename associations:
C:\temp> script.py # run per file's #! line if present, else per default C:\temp> py script.py # ditto, but py.exe is run explicitlyAlternatively, the second technique listed above can select versions with argument switches in commandlines instead:
C:\temp> py -3 script.py # runs under latest 3.X C:\temp> py -2 script.py # runs under latest 2.X C:\temp> py -2.6 script.py # runs under 2.6 (only)This works both when launching scripts and starting the interactive interpreter (when no script is named):
C:\temp> py -3 # starts latest 3.X, interactive C:\temp> py -2 # starts latest 2.X, interactive C:\temp> py -3.1 # starts 3.1 (only), interactive C:\temp> py # start default Python (initially 2.X: see ahead)If there are both "#!" lines in the file and a version number switch in the commandline used to start it, the commandline's version overrides that in the file's directive:
#! python3.2 ... ...a 3.X script ... C\temp> py script.py # runs under 3.2, per file directive C\temp> py -3.1 script.py # runs under 3.1, even if 3.2 presentThe launcher also applies heuristics to select a specific Python version when it is missing or only partly described. For instance, the latest 2.X is run when only a "2" is specified, and a 2.X is preferred for files that do not name a version in a "#!" line when launched by icon click or generic commandlines (e.g., "py m.py", "m.py"), unless the default is configured to use 3.X instead by setting PY_PYTHON or a configuration file entry (more on this ahead).
Especially in the current dual 2.X/3.X Python world, explicit version selection seems a useful addition for Windows, where many (and probably most) newcomers get their first exposure to the language. Although it is not without potential pitfalls — including failures on unrecognized Unix '#!' lines and a puzzling 2.X default — it does allow for a more graceful coexistence of 2.X and 3.X files on the same machine, and provides a rational approach to version control in commandlines.
For more on the Windows launcher, including more advanced features and use cases I'll either condense or largely omit here, see this, and this. Among other things, the launcher also allows selecting between 32- and 64-bit installs, specifying defaults in configuration files, and defining custom "#!" command string expansion.
Some readers familiar with Unix scripting may find the prior section enough to get started. For others, this section provides additional context in the form of a tutorial, which gives concrete examples of the launcher in action for you to trace through. This section also discloses additional launcher details along the way, though, so even well-seasoned Unix veterans may benefit from a quick scan here before FTPing all their Python scripts to the local Windows box.
To get started, we'll be using the following simple script, what.py, which can be run under both 2.X and 3.X to echo the version number of the Python which runs its code ("sys.version" is a string, whose first component after splitting on whitespace is Python's version number):
#!python3 import sys print(sys.version.split()) # first part of stringThis script's first-line comment serves to designate the required Python version; it must begin with "#!" per Unix convention, and allows for a space before the "python3" or not. On my machine I currently have 2.7, 3,1, 3.2, and 3.3 all installed; let's watch which version is invoked as the script's first line is modified in the following sections, exploring file directives, commandlines, and defaults along the way.
As this script is coded, when run by icon click or commandline, the first line directs the registered py.exe launcher to run using the latest 3.X installed:
#! python3 import sys print(sys.version.split()) C:\temp> what.py # run per file directive 3.3.0 C:\temp> py what.py # ditto: latest 3.X 3.3.0Again, the space after "#!" is optional; I added a space to demonstrate the point here. Note that the first "what.py" command here is equivalent to both an icon click and "py what.py", because the py.exe program is registered to open ".py" files automatically in the Windows filename associations registry when the launcher is installed.
Also note that when launcher documentation talks about the "latest" version, it means the highest-numbered version. That is, it refers to the latest released, not the latest installed on your computer (if you install 3.1 after 3.3, "#!python3" selects the latter). The launcher cycles through the Pythons on your computer to find the highest-numbered version that matches your specification or defaults; this differs from the former last-installed-wins model.
Now, changing the first line to name to "python2" triggers the latest (really, highest-numbered) 2.X installed instead. Here's this change at work; I'll omit the last two lines of our script from this point on because they won't be altered:
#! python2 ...rest of script unchanged C:\temp> what.py # run with latest 2.X per #! 2.7.3And you can request a more specific version if needed — for example, if you don't want the latest in a Python line:
#! python3.1 ... C:\temp> what.py # run with 3.1 per #! 3.1.4This is true even if the requested version is not installed — which is treated as an error case by the launcher:
#! python2.6 ... C:\temp> what.py Requested Python version (2.6) is not installedUnrecognized Unix "#!" lines are also treated as errors, unless you give a version number as a commandline switch to compensate, as the next section describes in more detail (and as the section on launcher issues will revisit as a pitfall):
#!/bin/python ... C:\temp> what.py Unable to create process using '/bin/python "C:\temp\what.py" ' C:\temp> py what.py Unable to create process using '/bin/python what.py' C:\temp> py -3 what.py 3.3.0Technically, the launcher recognizes Unix-style "#!" lines at the top of script files which follow one of the following four patterns:
#!/usr/bin/env python* #!/usr/bin/python* #!/usr/local/bin/python* #!python*Any "#!" line that does not take one of these recognized and parseable forms is assumed to be a fully-specified commandline to start a process to run the file, which is passed to Windows as is, and generates the error message we saw previously if not a valid Windows command. (The launcher also supports "customized" command expansions via its configuration files which are attempted before passing unrecognized commands on to Windows, but we'll gloss over these here.)
In recognizable "#!" lines, directory paths are coded per Unix convention, for portability to that platform. The "*" part at the end of the four recognized patterns above denotes an optional Python version number, in one of three forms:
First, though, note that anything after the "*" part in a "#!" line is assumed to be commandline arguments to Python itself (i.e., program "python.exe"), unless you also give arguments in a "py" commandline which are deemed to supersede "#!" line arguments by the launcher:
#!python3 [any python.exe arguments go here] ...But this leads us to launcher commandlines in general, and will suffice as a natural segue to the next section.
As mentioned, version switches on command lines can be used to select a Python version if one isn't present in the file. You run a "py" or "pyw" commandline to pass them a switch this way, instead of relying on filename associations in the registry, and instead of (or in addition to) versions in "#!" lines in files. In the following, we modify our script so it has no "#!" directive:
# not a launcher directive ... C:\temp> py -3 what.py # run per commandline switch 3.3.0 C:\temp> py -2 what.py # ditto: latest 2.X installed 2.7.3 C:\temp> py -3.2 what.py # ditto: 3.2 specifically (and only) 3.2.3 C:\temp> py what.py # run per launcher's default (ahead) 2.7.3But commandline switches also take precedence over a version designation in a file's directive:
#! python3.1 ... C:\temp> what.py # run per file directive 3.1.4 C:\temp> py what.py # ditto 3.1.4 C:\temp> py -3.2 what.py # switches override directives 3.2.3 C:\temp> py -2 what.py # ditto 2.7.3Formally, the launcher accepts the following commandline argument types (which exactly mirror the "*" part at the end of a file's "#!" line described in the prior section):
-2 Launch the latest Python 2.X version -3 Launch the latest Python 3.X version -X.Y Launch the specified Python version -X.Y-32 Launch the specified 32-bit Python versionAnd the launcher's commandlines take the following general form:
py [py.exe arg] [python.exe args] script.py [script.py args]Anything following the launcher's own argument (if present) is treated as though it were passed to the "python" program — typically, this includes any arguments for Python itself, followed by the script filename, followed by any arguments meant for the script, though the usual "-m mod", "-c cmd", and "-" program specification forms work in a "py" commandline too (as mentioned earlier, arguments to "python.exe" can also appear at the end of the "#!" directive line in a file, if used).
Let's write a new script which extends the prior with argument display to trace; "sys.argv" is the script's own arguments, and I'm using the Python (python.exe) "-i" switch, which directs it to the interactive prompt (">>>") after a script runs:
# args.py, show my arguments too import sys print(sys.version.split()) print(sys.argv) C:\temp> py -3 -i args.py -a 1 -b -c # -3: py, -i: python, rest: script 3.3.0 ['args.py', '-a', '1', '-b', '-c'] >>> ^Z C:\temp> py -i args.py -a 1 -b -c # args to python, script 2.7.3 ['args.py', '-a', '1', '-b', '-c'] >>> ^Z C:\temp> py -3 -c print(99) # -3 to py, rest to python: "-c cmd" 99 C:\temp> py -2 -c "print 99" 99Notice how the first two launches above run the default Python unless a version is given in the commandline, because no "#!" line appears in the script itself. Somewhat coincidentally, that leads us to the last topic of this tutorial.
As also mentioned, the launcher defaults to 2.X for a generic "python" in a "#!" directive with no specific version number. This is true whether this generic form appears in a full Unix path (e.g., "#!/usr/bin/python") or not ("#!python"). Here's the latter case in action, coded in our original "what.py" script:
#!python ... # same as #!/usr/bin/python C:\temp> what.py # run per launcher default 2.7.3The default is also applied when no directive is present at all — perhaps the most common case for code written to be used on Windows primarily or exclusively:
# not a launcher directive ... C:\temp> what.py # also run per default 2.7.3 C:\temp> py what.py # ditto 2.7.3But you can set the launcher's default to 3.X with initialization file or environment variable settings, which will apply to both files run from commandlines and by icon clicks via their name's association with py.exe or pyw.exe in the Windows registry:
# not a launcher directive ... C:\temp> what.py # run per default 2.7.3 C:\temp> set PY_PYTHON=3 # or via Control Panel/System C:\temp> what.py # run per changed default 3.3.0
As suggested earlier, for more fine-grained control you can also set version-specific environment variables to direct partial selections to a specific release, instead of falling back on the release with highest minor number installed:
#!python3 ... C:\temp> py what.py # runs "latest" 3.X 3.3.0 C:\temp> set PY_PYTHON3=3.1 # use PY_PYTHON2 for 2.X C:\temp> py what.py # override highest-minor choice 3.1.4
Making such settings in the Control Panel's System window will make them apply globally across your machine. You may or may not want to set defaults this way depending on the majority of the Python code you'll be running. Many Python 2.X users can probably rely on defaults unchanged, and override them in "#!" lines or commandlines as needed.
However, the setting used for directive-less files, PY_PYTHON, seems fairly crucial. Most programmers who have used Python on Windows in the past will probably expect 3.X to be the default after installing 3.3, especially given that the launcher is installed by 3.3 in the first place! — a seeming paradox, which leads us to the next section.
Though the new Windows launcher in 3.3 is a nice addition, like much in 3.X it may have been nicer had it appeared years ago. Unfortunately, it comes with some backward incompatibilities which may be an inevitable byproduct of today's multi-version Python world, but which may break some existing programs. This includes examples in book's I've written, and probably many others. While porting code to 3.3, I've come across three launcher issues worth noting:
The new Windows launcher recognizes Unix "#!" lines that begin with "#!/usr/bin/env python" but not the other common Unix form "#!/bin/env python" (which is actually mandated on some Unixes). Scripts which use the latter of these, including some book examples, worked on Windows in the past because their "#!" lines coded for Unix compatibility have been ignored as comments by all Windows Pythons to date. These scripts now fail to run in 3.3 because the new launcher doesn't recognize their format and posts an error message.
More generally, scripts with any "#!" Unix line not recognized will now fail to run on Windows. This includes scripts having any first line that begins with a "#!" which is not followed by one of the four recognized patterns described earlier: "/usr/bin/env python*", "/usr/bin/python*", "/usr/local/bin/python*", or "python*". Anything else won't work, and requires code changes. For instance, a somewhat common "#!/bin/python" line also causes a script to now fail, unless a version number is given in commandline switches.
Unix-style "#!" lines probably aren't present in Windows-only programs, but can be common in programs meant to be run on Unix too. Treating unrecognized Unix directives as errors on Windows seems a bit extreme, especially given that this is new behavior in 3.3, and will likely be unexpected. Why not just ignore unrecognized "#!" lines and run the file with the default Python — like every Windows Python to date has? It's possible that this might be improved in a future 3.X release (I'd expect to see some backlash on this), but today you must change any files using a "#!/bin/env" or other unrecognized pattern, if you want them to run under the launcher installed with Python 3.3 on Windows.
With respect to the book examples I ported to 3.3, this broke roughly a dozen scripts that started with "#!/bin/env python". Regrettably, this includes some of the book's user-friendly and top-level demo launcher scripts (PyGadgets and PyDemos). To fix, I changed these to use the accepted "#!/usr/bin/env python" form instead. Altering your Windows file associations to omit the launcher altogether may be another option (e.g., associating ".py" files with "python.exe" instead of "py.exe"), but this negates the launcher's benefits, and seems a bit much to ask of users, especially newcomers.
One open issue here: strangely, passing any commandline switch to the launcher, even a "python.exe" argument, seems to negate this effect and fall back on the default Python — "m.py" and "py m.py" both issue errors on unrecognized "#!" lines, but "py -i m.py" runs such a file with the default Python. This seems a possible launcher bug (TBD), but also relies on the default, the subject of the next issue.
Oddly, the Windows 3.3 launcher defaults to using an installed Python 2.X when running scripts that don't select 3.X explicitly. That is, scripts which either have no "#!" directive, or use one that names "python" generically will be run by a 2.X Python by default when launched by icon clicks, direct filename commandlines ("m.py"), or "py" commandlines which give no version switch ("py m.py"). This is true even if 3.3 is installed after a 2.X on your machine, and has the potential to make many 3.X scripts fail initially.
The implications of this are potentially broad. As one example, clicking the icon of a directive-less 3.X file just after installing 3.3 may now fail, because the associated launcher assumes you mean to use 2.X by default. This probably won't be a pleasant first encounter for some Python newcomers! This assumes the 3.X file has no "#!" directive that provides an explicit "python3" version number, but most scripts meant to run on Windows won't have a "#!" line at all, and many files coded before the launcher came online won't accommodate its version number expectations.
Program launches which don't give an explicit version number might be arguably ambiguous on Unix too, and often rely on symbolic links from "python" to a specific version (which is most likely 2.X today — a state the new Windows launcher seems to emulate). But as for the prior issue, this probably shouldn't trigger a new error on Windows in 3.3 for scripts that worked there formerly. Most programmers wouldn't expect Unix comment lines to matter on Windows, and wouldn't expect 2.X to be used just after installing 3.X.
In terms of my book examples port, this 2.X default caused multiple 3.X script failures after installing 3.3, for both scripts with no "#!" line, as well as scripts with a Unix-compatible "#!/usr/bin/python" line. To fix just the latter, change all scripts in this category to name "python3" explicitly instead of just "python". To fix both the former and the latter in a single step, set the Windows launcher's default to be 3.X globally with either a "py.ini" file (see the launcher's documentation for details) or a PY_PYTHON environment variable setting as shown in the earlier examples (e.g., "set PY_PYTHON=3"). As mentioned in the prior point, manually changing your file associations is another solution, but none of these options seem simpler than those imposed by prior install schemes.
Besides installing the new launcher, the Windows Python 3.3 installer can automatically add the directory containing 3.3's "python.exe" executable to your system PATH setting. The reasoning behind this is that it might make life easier for some Windows beginners — they can type just "python" instead of a full directory path. This isn't a feature of the launcher per se, and shouldn't cause scripts to fail in general. It had no impact on the book examples. But it seems to clash with the launcher's operation and goals, and may be best avoided.
As described, the new launcher's "py" and "pyw" executables are by default installed on your system search path, and running them requires neither directory paths nor PATH settings. If you start scripts with "py" instead of "python" commandlines, the new PATH feature is irrelevant. In fact, "py" completely subsumes "python" in most contexts. Given that file associations will launch "py" or "pyw" instead of "python" anyhow, you probably should too — using "python" instead of "py" may prove redundant and inconsistent, and might even launch a version different than that used in launcher contexts should the two schemes' settings grow out of synch. In short, adding "python" to PATH seems contradictory to the new launcher's world view, and potentially error-prone.
Also note that updating your PATH assumes you want "python" to run 3.3 normally, and this feature is disabled by default; be sure to select this in the install screen if you want this to work (but not if you don't!). Due to the second point above, many users may still need to set PY_PYTHON to 3 for programs run by icon clicks that invoke the new launcher, which seems no simpler than setting PATH, a step that the launcher was meant to remove. You may be better served by using just the launcher's executables, and changing just PY_PYTHON as needed.
To be fair, some of the prior section's pitfalls may be an inevitable consequence of trying to simultaneously support a Unix feature on Windows and multiple installed versions. In exchange, it provides a coherent way to manage mixed-version scripts and installations. You'll probably find the Windows launcher shipped with 3.3 and later to be a major asset once you start using it, and get past any initial incompatibilities you may encounter.
In fact, you may also want to start getting into the habit of coding compatible Unix-style '#!" lines in your Windows scripts, with explicit version numbers (e.g., "#!/usr/bin/python3"). Not only does this declare your code's requirements and arrange for its proper execution on Windows, it will also subvert the launcher's defaults, and may also make your script usable as a Unix executable in the future.
But you should be aware that the launcher may break some formerly valid scripts with "#!" lines, may choose a default version which you don't expect and your scripts can't use, and may require configuration and code changes on the order of those it was intended to obviate. The new boss is better than the old boss, but seems to have gone to the same school.
This page's material first appeared on this page, and was later revised and published in this book. See the latter for more on using Python.